Name of Organization Begins With:
As the largest Technology-as-a-Service (TaaS) provider for the professional services sector, AbacusNext helps legal and accounting professionals achieve ultimate success and peace of mind through the delivery of a complete suite of compliance-ready technology solutions designed to support a secure and cloud-enabled practice at a cost they can afford. Our portfolio of turnkey solutions includes hardware, software and infrastructure on a pay as you go model; Practice Management, Client Resource Management (CRM), Payment Processing, Email, Desktop as a Service (DaaS) and Managed IT.
Headquartered in San Diego, California, and backed by private investment with Providence Equity, AbacusNext delivers products and services to over 500,000 businesses worldwide. To sign up or learn more visit AbacusNext.com.
Accedere Inc is CO CPA Firm with Lisc no FRM.5000337 specialising in AICPA SOC Reporting, Cyber security consulting, Cloud Security, Blockchain Audit Services.
ACORN machine is a fintech platform that helps automate the way banks penetrate the bespoke SME lending market. It does this by leveraging process excellence, machine learning and technology to fuel data-driven decision making across the loan lifecycle.
This includes everything from the target identification, lead capture and qualification, to the underwriting, credit analysis, booking and proactive monitoring of the loan.
The platform collects millions of data items on SMEs across various parameters, sectors, and markets, and uses machine learning algorithms to identify data that lenders need to make more informed credit decisions. ACORN’s team of credit analysts and data scientists manage the process, training the machine learning algorithms, so that the platform continues to evolve and get smarter. The platform therefore provides its clients with significant process efficiency gains, data-driven decision making, and smarter credit analysis and capabilities.
The concept of ACORN machine was proven via OakNorth, an award-winning challenger bank founded in 2015 to address the mid-market funding gap in the UK.
To date, the bank has lent c.£1bn to UK businesses and property developers, directly helping with the creation of over 5,100 new homes and thousands of new jobs. The bank reached cash flow break even in just 11 months, had repaid all its accrued debts before it turned two years old, and had a full year of profitability in 2017.
The ACORN machine team is now embedding the platform with banking partners around the world, enabling them to replicate OakNorth’s success in the UK in their own markets.
Ademanda.com is a company that provides value-added service to cloud computing solutions. We provide solutions with the main players in the cloud computing market. We have specialized in providing services for the government and the private market. Ademanda.com have several certifications such as ISO 27001, since 2011, and we are in the process of certifying an integrated management system, with ISO 22301, 9001 and 20000-1.
Appian delivers an enterprise platform for digital transformation that makes it easy for organizations to move fast and revolutionize the customer experience. Powered by industry leading Business Process Management (BPM) and Case Management capabilities, Appian’s low-code approach radically accelerates the time it takes to build and deploy powerful, modern applications, on-premises or in the cloud. The world’s most innovative organizations use Appian to revolutionize their customer experiences, transform their business operations, and master global risk and compliance. For more information, visit www.appian.com.
The increasing use of APIs to provide access to applications and to business-critical data has naturally led to a dramatic increase in security risks.
Neither conventional network perimeter control nor server-level runtime protection can protect the entire in-app activity flow as user actions in a single flow traverse different services with multiple API calls. Gaps in the flow leave enterprise apps exposed to API level vulnerabilities such as session/token misuse, context obfuscation, data leakage, or unauthorized access.
ArecaBay introduces an Adaptive End-to-End API Transaction Security solution to protect the entire in-app activity flow. There are two keys to this solution: API Micro Sensors and Self-Adaptive API Learning. API Micro Sensors are light-weight software components built to access real-time API call data without any modification to the applications or their runtime. API call data captured by Micro Sensors is then fed to the cycles of continuous Self-Adaptive API Learning. First an API Classifier learns the constructs of the API and generates an API Spec. The Spec's are used to accurately monitor user in-app behavior to visualize the app hygiene, and to enforce advanced policies for anomaly prevention beyond just detection and access control.
ArecaBay offers the only solution that can fully protect API transactions end-to-end because it is the only way to secure the entire in-app activity flow across multitude of services with disparate APIs.
Aspect helps enterprises break down the walls between people, processes, systems and data sources, allowing organizations to unite around the customer journey. By developing fully native contact center interaction management, workforce optimization and self-service capabilities within a single customer engagement center, we enable dynamic, conversational interactions and create a truly frictionless omni-channel customer experience. Leveraging the agility of our worldwide cloud infrastructure and over 40 years of industry ingenuity, Aspect conveniently and easily connects questions to answers while helping enterprises keep service levels high and operational costs contained. For more information, visit www.aspect.com.
athenahealth is a leading provider of cloud-based practice management, EHR and patient communication services to medical groups, hospitals and health systems. For athenahealth clients, being on a cloud-based service means benefiting from the collective clinical and payer knowledge of 29,000 providers on our growing network. This includes continuously tracking and updating payer and clinical rules, formulary requirements, and managing pay-for-performance and other quality programs to secure maximum incentives. athenahealth’s suite of integrated, cloud-based services includes:
At AT&T, we’re bringing it all together. We deliver advanced mobile services, next-generation TV, high-speed internet and smart solutions for people and businesses. That’s why we’re investing to be a global leader in the Technology, Media and Telecommunications industry.
Business is changing every day. Companies need the agility to effectively compete and win in their industries. AT&T solutions help companies adapt to change in near real time and meet the evolving needs of tomorrow. More than 3 million businesses from the largest multinational corporations to small businesses turn to AT&T. We work with companies in all major industries, including financial services, manufacturing, education, healthcare, retail, hospitality and government.
We serve nearly all of the Fortune 1000. We also serve more than 60 percent of the FTSE 100 companies, more than 90 percent of the CAC 40 companies, more than 85 percent of the DAX 30 companies and more than 60 percent of the Nikkei 225 companies.
We’ve launched some of the industry’s most innovative products and platforms through our highly secure business solutions — including security and mobility services, Internet of Things, Ethernet, VPN, cloud, AT&T NetBond® and AT&T FlexWare.
Security is at the core of what we do. AT&T security experts analyze the traffic on our network 24/7/365 to help understand and identify the latest emerging threats. With more than 180 petabytes of data crossing our network every day, our experts have unique insight into the threat landscape that helps them detect new threats before they become a problem.
Avanan: Any Cloud | Any Security | One Click
Avanan, The Cloud Security Platform, protects data in any SaaS or IaaS cloud. Partnering with the industry's most trusted security vendors, Avanan offers cloud-native versions of the most advanced technology to protect against malware, phishing, ransomware, data leakage, compromised accounts and more. The cloud-based platform is completely out-of-band and can be deployed in one click.
Future-proof, best-of-breed cloud security and policy orchestration.
Avaya is a leading provider of solutions that enable customer and team engagement across multiple channels and devices for better customer experience, increased productivity and enhanced financial performance. Its world-class contact center and unified communications technologies and services are available in a wide variety of flexible on-premises and cloud deployment options that seamlessly integrate with non-Avaya applications. Avaya Breeze Platform™ enables third parties to create and customize business applications for competitive advantage. The Avaya fabric-based networking solutions help simplify and accelerate the deployment of business critical applications and services. For more information please visit www.avaya.com.
Avid Secure Inc.
Multi-cloud intelligent cloud security and compliance platform.
Bayestree is born to dramatically alter effectiveness, speed and cost of enterprise problem solving. We are a global product company founded on the back of latest research and thinking in mathematics, data science and computing. Our products are cognitive, sector agnostic and multi lingual
We are starting our journey with solving the vexed Service Management problem which is at the root of modern day customer experience. Customer Satisfaction, consistency of response, cost of delivery have all been debated and addressed by product companies, consulting firms and enterprises themselves. Sainapse now solves it once and for all...
We are already working on multiple sector specific and sector agnostic enterprises topics. That’s the fun of Bayestree.
Bay-Pac Systems Private Limited
Bay-Pac Systems (Pvt) Ltd is based on Chennai, India. It was started a by a small group of Human Resources professionals and Technocrats to provide a ready back-office facility to smaller organizations in the US so that they can take advantage of a ready made infrastructure, and have an office running literally overnite.
It came about because of a need in the market place where larger organizations with deep pockets and resources have taken advantage of low-cost, highly qualified labor pool in India by setting up footprints where most grunt work such as data-scrubbing, data conversions, call-centers and support are being run from. Smaller organizations have struggled to compete because of lack of resources needed to set up shop in a new country, and to manage peoples belonging to different cultures and value systems.
The founder, Reddy Chada is originally from India, but has spent 15 years in the US, both going to professional school and working in the west coast in large organizations implementing HRMS systems and providing global data integration solutions. With this unique perspective, he is able to tie the needs of the US clients with the delivery options available using local resources in India.
To this end, a highly successful operation delivering ready-made back-office services are available for small and medium organizations needing full-service or specific areas in Human Resources domain
Bell is Canada's largest communications company, providing consumers and business customers with wireless, TV, Internet, home phone and business communications services. Bell Media is Canada's premier multimedia company, with leading assets in television, radio, out of home and digital media. Bell is wholly owned by Montréal's BCE Inc. (TSX, NYSE: BCE). For more information, please visit http://Bell.ca.
BetterCloud is the first SaaS Operations Management platform, empowering IT and security teams to define, remediate, and enforce management and security policies for SaaS applications. Over 2,500 customers in 60+
Founded in 2004, BH Consulting is an award-winning independent advisory firm specialising in information security consulting, cybersecurity, cloud security, risk assessment, cloud forensics, and training. BH Consulting is recognised internationally as a leader in cybersecurity by Kennedy Consulting Research & Advisory, and has won numerous awards in recognition of its excellence and professionalism.
Based in New York and Tel Aviv, BigID uses advanced machine learning and identity intelligence to help enterprises better protect their customer and employee data at petabyte scale. Using BigID, enterprises can better safeguard and assure the privacy of their most sensitive data, reducing breach risk and enabling compliance with emerging data protection regulations like the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation and California Consumer Privacy Act. BigID has raised $46M in funding since its founding in 2016 and has been recognized for its privacy innovation as the 2018 RSA Conference Innovation Sandbox winner, a CB Insights 2018 Cyber Defender, Network Products Guide 2018 IT World Awards “Hot Company of the Year” winner, a 2019 InformationWeek Vendor to Watch, and a 2019 Business Insider enterprise vendor “to bet your career on.” Learn more at http://bigid.com or visit us at http://bigid.com/demo to schedule a demo.
Bitglass is a “cloud access security broker” and the leader in total data protection. Bitglass enables enterprises to adopt cloud-based applications without having to sacrifice the security of their data. The company's data protection suite delivers innovative technologies that transcend the network perimeter to deliver end-to-end data protection for the enterprise - in the cloud, on mobile devices and anywhere on the Internet. As industries like Healthcare and Finance begin adopting cloud apps, companies within them must comply with strict data protection regulations. Bitglass helps enterprises remain compliant while giving their enterprise IT teams the visibility and control they need and their employees the mobility and privacy they require. Bitglass was founded in 2013 by a team of industry veterans with a proven track record of innovation and execution. The company is based in Silicon Valley and backed by venture capital from NEA and Norwest.
BitSight Technologies is transforming how companies manage information security risk with objective, evidence-based security ratings. The company's Security Rating Platform continuously analyzes vast amounts of external data on security behaviors in order to help organizations manage third party risk, benchmark performance, and assess and negotiate cyber insurance premiums.For more information, please visit www.bitsighttech.com or follow us on Twitter (@BitSight).
Blackbaud is the world’s leading cloud software company powering social good. Serving the entire social good community—nonprofits, foundations, corporations, education institutions, and individual change agents—Blackbaud connects and empowers organizations to increase their impact through software, services, expertise, and data intelligence. The Blackbaud portfolio is tailored to the unique needs of vertical markets, with solutions for fundraising and relationship management, digital marketing, advocacy, accounting, payments, analytics, school management, grant management, corporate social responsibility, and volunteerism. Serving the industry for more than three decades, Blackbaud is headquartered in Charleston, South Carolina and has operations in the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. For more information, visit www.blackbaud.com.
Booz Allen Hamilton
For more than 100 years, business, government, and military leaders have turned to Booz Allen Hamilton to solve their most complex problems. They trust us to bring together the right minds: those who devote themselves to the challenge at hand, who speak with relentless candor, and who act with courage and character. They expect original solutions where there are no roadmaps. They rely on us because they know that—together—we will find the answers and change the world. To learn more, visit BoozAllen.com.
Centrify is redefining the legacy approach to Privileged Access Management (PAM) by delivering cloud-ready Zero Trust Privilege to secure access to Infrastructure, DevOps, Cloud, Containers, Big Data, and other modern enterprise attack surfaces. As traditional network perimeters dissolve, organizations must discard the old model of “trust but verify”, which relied on well-defined boundaries. Zero Trust mandates a “never trust, always verify, enforce least privilege” approach to privileged access, from inside or outside the network. Centrify Zero Trust Privilege helps customers grant least privilege access based on verifying who is requesting access, the context of the request, and the risk of the access environment. By implementing least privilege access, Centrify minimizes the attack surface, improves audit and compliance visibility, and reduces risk, complexity, and costs for the modern, hybrid enterprise.
Organizations may consider approaching PAM by solely implementing password vaults, leaving gaps that can easily be exploited. Centrify Zero Trust Privilege combines password vaulting with brokering of identities, multi-factor authentication enforcement, and “just enough” privilege, all while securing remote access and monitoring of all privileged sessions.
Centrify’s industry-recognized solution redefines legacy PAM and goes beyond simple password vaulting to converge the core tenets of Zero Trust Privilege. Over half of the Fortune 100, the world’s largest financial institutions, intelligence agencies, and critical infrastructure companies, all trust Centrify to stop the leading cause of breaches – privileged credential abuse. For more information, please visit www.centrify.com.
CEPREI Certification Body
CEPREI HQ No.110 Dongguan Zhuang RD. Guangzhou, P.R.China Telephone: +86-20-87236606 [email protected] As a leading provider of management system certification body in China and the first Executive Member of CSA in Asia, CEPREI Certification Body Provides information security related professional services such as ISO20000 & ISO27001 certification, risk assessment, IT governance, Business Continuity Management etc. Also, newly launched C-STAR assessment scheme is provided to help our client fully understand cloud security issues they’re facing and how to put the appropriate controls in place. CEPREI Certification Body with unique legal status is a registrar authorized and accredited by national department and/or accreditation bodies home and abroad, to conduct third-party certification. It grew out of Inspection Division of China Electronic Product Reliability and Environmental Research Institute （the Fifth Electronic Institute） established in 1956, which is the first scientific research organization at national level engaged in product quality and reliability research in China. As early as 1979, CEPREI Certification Body introduced the concept of Certification into China. Ever since then CEPREI has issued more than ten thousand certificates of various types to its clients. It sets foot in all administrative regions in mainland China and other countries and regions including Hongkong Special Administration Region, Taiwan, USA, German, Holland, Denmark, Australia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. As one of the most authoritative accreditation bodies in the world, America National Standard Institute-Registrar Accreditation Board (ANAB) has authorized CEPREI Certification Body to issue ISO9000, ISO14000 and ISO27001 certificates with ANAB logo since 2001. The certificate will be helpful for your products and services in improving reputation and enhancing competitiveness home and abroad.
Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. is a multinational provider of software and combined hardware and software products for IT security, including network security, endpoint security, mobile security, data security and security management.
Information security has never been so challenging. Trends such as public and private cloud services, consumerization and workshifting (work anywhere) mean that more people are accessing enterprise data, applications and desktops from more places, over more networks and in more ways than ever before. In the face of more sophisticated threats and a rising burden of data protection, privacy and compliance, IT must take control. Citrix provides secure-by-design cloud and networking solutions, complemented by industry-leading security partners, that enables organizations to simplify cloud security and accelerate the delivery of applications while protecting them from attack. Data, applications, desktops and services are managed and secured centrally wherever they are—public clouds, private clouds or enterprise datacenters—and delivered securely anywhere, over any kind of connection to any device. With Citrix, your organization embraces the cloud securely, regains control and manages risk more effectively while providing optimal flexibility to allow your business to do what it needs to do, the way it needs to.
CloudPassage addresses the number one inhibitor to cloud adoption – security. We provide server security products purpose-built for server environments where servers are cloned, migrated, bursted, and boomeranged. The company's Halo line of products operate seamlessly across public, private, and hybrid cloud environments and can even be used on physical servers. The products bridge the gap between traditional perimeter-oriented datacenter security and security in dynamic cloud environments.
CNG Cyber Solutions
CNG’s game changing solutions are designed to combat the ever-evolving cyber security threat environment. CNG Cyber Solutions, LLC three focus areas. Ground Zero, Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) FedRAMP Certification and Accreditation, Custom design and building of Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility.
Coalfire is the trusted leader in cybersecurity risk management and compliance services. Coalfire integrates advisory and technical assessments and recommendations to the corporate directors, executives, boards, and IT organizations for global brands and organizations in the technology, cloud, healthcare, retail, payments, and financial industries. Coalfire's approach addresses each businesses' specific vulnerability challenges, developing a long-term strategy to prevent security breaches and data theft. Coalfire provides advisory and assessment services for cyber security and compliance in DoD SRG, FISMA/FedRAMP, HIPAA/HITRUST, PCI DSS, PCI PA-DSS, ISO 27001, SOC and technical testing services such as penetration testing, social engineering and forensics. Coalfire has offices throughout the United States and Europe.
Conga helps businesses get more value from their CRM by transforming their processes through AI-empowered digital transformation. Conga delivers digital transformation by helping create, manage, collaborate on, negotiate, and eSign business documents and contracts, all via visual process automation. The Conga Suite of products helps to simplify user experiences and increase productivity.
As a Salesforce Platinum Partner, Conga has built a base of more than 700,000 users, in 85+ countries, across all industries. Thousands of organizations rely on Conga daily to manage and simplify critical business processes. The company is based in Colorado with global operations in the UK and Australia. Learn more at www.conga.com or follow Conga on Twitter: @getconga.
Branch, mobile, and IoT edge networks are undergoing dramatic change — and taking traditional enterprise WANs to their breaking point. Organizations must manage complex branch sites; data-driven vehicle fleets and mobile command centers; a vast array of IoT and M2M use cases; and everything in between. Founded in 2006, Cradlepoint has grown to become the industry leader in cloud-delivered 4G LTE network solutions for business, service providers, and government organizations, and we are committed to extending our leadership into the emerging 5G space. More than 25,000 customers worldwide in retail, financial services, healthcare, transportation, public sector, and other industries rely on Cradlepoint to keep their branch and mobile networks, and IoT devices, always connected and protected. Our Elastic Edge™ vision provides a blueprint for next-generation, software-defined edge networks built on pervasive and reliable 4G/5G wireless services, connecting people, places, and things everywhere with enterprise-class visibility, security, and control.
Cradlepoint is a privately held company headquartered in Boise, Idaho, with a development center in Silicon Valley, California, and international offices in the UK and Australia.
CrowdStrike has revolutionized endpoint protection by being the first and only company to unify next-generation antivirus, endpoint detection and response (EDR), and a 24/7 managed hunting service — all delivered via a single lightweight agent. The CrowdStrike Falcon™ platform, certified to replace legacy antivirus, has reinvented how endpoint security is delivered with its industry-leading, cloud native architecture. CrowdStrike Falcon protects customers against advanced cyber attacks, using sophisticated signatureless artificial intelligence/machine learning and Indicator of Attack (IOA) based threat prevention to stop known and unknown threats in real-time. Core to its innovative approach is the CrowdStrike Threat Graph™ which analyzes and correlates over 27 billion events per day from millions of sensors deployed across more than 170 countries, uniquely providing crowdsourced protection for the entire customer community.
Recently recognized as one of the 20 most promising enterprise security solution providers for 2018 by CIOReview, CyberInt eliminates potential threats before they become crises by looking at all online activities and digital assets from an attacker’s perspective and provides managed detection and response services to customers worldwide. Leveraging ArgosTM real-time Digital Risk Protection platform with a global cyber expert analyst team, as well as managed SOC, threat hunting, deep dive investigations, real-time incident response and risk and business impact assessment services, CyberInt provides holistic end-to-end protection to digital businesses in retail, ecommerce, gaming and financial industries.
CyQureX Systems Pvt Ltd
Based in Bangalore, India, we are a dedicated team of experts with the passion and commitment to secure your business.
CyQureX, along with its partners, provides an array of products and services that will secure your business so you can drive innovation and growth. Our products and services secure your value chain end to end.
SAIFE – A Complete Cyber Security Solution for Connected Devices Increasing complexities of modern businesses have necessitated hosting of data beyond traditional secure perimeters. Data today is hosted in cloud environments and retrieved through mobile devices on the go. Enterprises often find themselves in a situation where they are forced to choose between security and mobility. While breach of security can translate into loss of reputation and legal liabilities, lack of mobility can hinder business growth. SAIFE addresses this challenge through its disruptive innovation – Continuum, a software defined perimeter (SDP) based platform.
Moving Away from ‘Secure Connection’ to ‘Protection before Connection’ The solution rids enterprises of worries pertaining to compromised devices and exploited networks. The platform, Continuum, leaves no footprint of established connectivity negating the possibility of pre-authenticated reuse of assumed connectivity. The connection itself is stateless and transactional, and creates secure data-transfer tunnels devoid of the need for VPNs and firewalls. The result –software defined perimeter that goes beyond the bounds of systems, environments, devices, user profiles, networks, and locations. Only verified users can connect through any end- point device through trusted and pre-negotiated policy-based authentication. Even off-the- shelf iOS and Android mobile devices can be transformed into secure devices.
Cyxtera Technologies combines a worldwide footprint of 50+ best-in-class data centers with a portfolio of modern, cloud- and hybrid-ready security and analytics offerings – providing more than 3,500 enterprises, government agencies and service providers an integrated, secure and cyber-resilient infrastructure platform for critical applications and systems. For more information about Cyxtera visit http://www.cyxtera.com/.
SN Registrars (Holdings) Ltd is the UKAS Accredited certification body operating under the trading names SNR Certification, DAS Certification and QEC Certification. For more information and locations of our international offices please visit www.snregistrars.com or www.dascertification.com
As regional representatives of DAS Certification, The DAS SEE office combines many years of experience in ISO 27001 and ISO 20000-1 certification within the ICT sector and is the designated program leader for the STAR Certification scheme with contact details below: DAS SEE, agent of SN Registrars (Holdings) Ltd [email protected] www.das-see.com
2007 in Fremont of California, the company now has many branches with its national sales networks in many cities, such as Hongkong and Shanghai, Beijing in China. We provide products and services to 1000 customers across all industries, including many Fortune 500, large and middle-sized organizations. Since 2009, the DBAPPSecurity Ltd., a Leading company focusing on Web Application security and database security technologies. Founded in company’s revenue has being grown more than 50% per year.
DBAPPSecurity focuses its efforts on research and development and has a professional team with years of experience in developing and implementing data security and web application security solutions. The company owns some of the world leading technology patterns, and is dedicated to offer web application security and database security solutions. DBAPPsecurity’s customers include government organizations as well as leading companies from various industries such as finance, energy, education, medical and e-commerce industry.
Dell Technologies (NYSE:DELL) is a unique family of businesses that helps organizations and individuals build their digital future and transform how they work and live. The company provides customers with the industry’s broadest and most innovative technology and services portfolio spanning from edge to core to cloud. The Dell Technologies family includes Dell, Dell EMC, Pivotal, RSA, Secureworks,Virtustream and VMware.
Digital Asset Custody Company, Inc
DACC provides institutional quality crypto currency asset custody to institutional investors, HNW individuals, and family offices. DACC’s goal is to custody any crypto asset, including those deemed to be securities by the SEC. Currently, DACC can technologically custody 60+ crypto assets with industry-leading egress times from our network of secure, cold storage (“air-gapped”) facilities. These facilities are built to align with best practices found in the most secure government and private security organizations offering security, redundancy and, most importantly for institutional investors, custody.
DACC’s leadership team is comprised of individuals with careers spent within the most sophisticated financial services firms. This experience provides a unique vantage point and drives the customer service ethos expected by sophisticated crypto currency investors.
The DACC provides:
DACC has applied for membership to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) and upon approval will be a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) registered broker-dealer.
Digiware S.A. is the expert provider of comprehensive strategies generation in information security for America. With 20 years of experience, it protects organizations against security risks involved technological growth; in turn, aware of the enormous challenge facing the areas of information security today rests on the definition, implementation and maintenance of strategic programs for information security, that integrate with business objectives.
Proactive protection Digiware S.A., under the model of Resources of Security Intelligence - RIS, provides the visibility needed to boards, governing bodies, personal risk, operational, technological and security, to deal with the risks of dynamic information.