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Cloud Security Glossary

Last Updated: Dec 01, 2022

Glossary

This comprehensive glossary combines all the glossaries created by CSA Working Groups and research contributors into one place. If you have a question or need other assistance please reach out to [email protected].

Letter 8

802.1x

An IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks–Port-Based Network Access Control. IEEE 802 LANs are deployed in networks that convey or provide access to critical data, that support mission critical applications, or that charge for service. Port-based network access control regulates access to the network, guarding against transmission and reception by unidentified or unauthorized parties, and consequent network disruption, theft of service, or data loss.

SDP architectures define a number of connection types including, client-to-gateway, client-to-server, server-to-server, and private, cloud-to-public cloud. Each of these connections depends upon strong, authentication from layer 2 or 3 up to layer 7; 802.1x being one of these authentication, mechanisms.

Sources

https://1.ieee802.org/security/802-1x/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf

Letter A

ACLs

Access Control Lists (ACLs) indicate the permissions that subjects are granted regarding accessing or changing the objects within a system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


AWS API Access Key

The credentials pair of an AWS user, different to username/password credentials as they are intended for programmatic use with AWS API.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


AWS EC2

The amazon web services server workloads (elastic compute) service, mostly used for virtual machines run by customers on AWS infrastructure.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Accepting Host (AH)

The SDP policy enforcement points (PEPs) that control access to any resource (or service) to which an identity might need to connect, and to which the responsible enterprise needs to hide and control access. AHs can be located on-premises, in a private cloud, public cloud, etc.
A trusted node within an SDP. The accepting host (AH) accepts the communication from the initiating host (IH) after the SDP controller authenticates and authorizes the connection. The SDP controller instructs the accepting SDP hosts to accept communication from the initiating host by leveraging policies required for two-way encrypted communications such as mutual TLS.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/software-defined-perimeter-zero-trust-specification-v2/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Accepting Host Controller Path

The channel used for communication between each accepting host (AH) and the controller.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Accepting Host Session

The period of time that a particular accepting host (AH) is connected to a controller.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Accepting Host Session ID

A 256-bit randomized arbitrary number used once (NONCE), managed by the SDP controller and used to refer to a particular accepting host (AH) session.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Access

To make contact with one or more discrete functions of an online, digital service.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/access


Access Policy (SDP Policy)

For every connection established, SDP must fundamentally determine which users (and/or devices) are permitted to access which resources (e.g. services, gateways), and under which circumstances (e.g. from certain locations). SDPs provide policy decision points and policy enforcement points for connections. A cloud service provider (CSP), who elects to protect its resources behind a SDP, must develop a balanced “registered user access control policy”, as an undue restricted policy is likely to result in the denial of access/service. Expected access control policy’s performance attributes should become a part of the service level agreement (SLA).

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Acknowledgement (ACK)

Confirmation that the destination has received the micropacket without errors.

Sources

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso-iec:11518:-10:ed-1:v1:en:term:3.1.1


Active Directory (AD)

A Microsoft directory service for the management of identities in Windows domain networks.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/active_directory


Active Directory Services

Active Directory Service serves as a central location for network administration and security. The AD is responsible for authenticating and authorizing all users and computers within a Windows domain network, assigning and enforcing security policies within all computers in a network, and installing or updating software on network computers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Actuators

An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple terms, it is a “mover”. An actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. The control signal for an actuator is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. Its main energy source may be an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When it receives a control signal, an actuator responds by converting the signal’s energy into mechanical motion. 

An actuator is a mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input.

Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actuator


Advanced Cloud Security Practitioner (ACSP)

This is an advanced, hands-on, cloud security class that expands on the basics of the CCSK Plus hands-on training. This course delves deep into practical cloud security and applied DevSecOps for enterprise-scale cloud deployments.

Sources

https://knowledge.cloudsecurityalliance.org/advanced-cloud-security-practitioner-2021


Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol is an open internet protocol for business messaging.
AMQP is comprised of several layers. The lowest level defines an efficient, binary, peer-to-peer protocol for transporting messages between two processes over a network. Above this, the messaging layer defines an abstract message format, with concrete standard encoding. Every compliant AMQP process MUST be able to send and receive messages in this standard encoding.

Sources

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso-iec:19464:ed-1:v1:en


Agent ID (AID)

A 32-bit unique unsigned value that identifies a given initiating host (IH) and/or accepting host (AH) during single packet authorization.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Air-Gapped

An interface between two systems in which (a) they are not connected physically and (b) any logical connection is not automated (i.e., data is transferred through the interface only manually, under human control).

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/air-gap


Air-Gapped Networks

An interface between two systems at which (a) they are not connected physically and (b) any logical connection is not automated (i.e., data is transferred through the interface only manually, under human control).

SDP is designed to provide an on-demand, dynamically provisioned, network that is the “equivalent of” an air-gapped network.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/air_gap

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Amplification Attack

Any attack where an attacker causes more resource usage than what a single connection should be capable of. The amplification factor multiplies the attack’s power through asymmetry, where a low level of resources causes a large level of target failures. Memcached server - General purpose distributed memory caching system used for increasing speed on dynamic database-driven websites. Memcrashing - utilizing a weakness in Memcached server on UDP port 11211 to execute an Amplification Attack and paralyze the hosting server Port 11211 - Memcached clients use client-side libraries to contact servers. By default, Memchached servers expose their service at port 11211 on both TCP and UDP.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Anti-Phishing

The ability to detect phishing attacks targeted at an organization’s users such as inbound phishing emails.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


AntiVirus

See Anti-Virus, Anti-Spam, Anti-Malware.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


AntiVirus, AntiSpam, AntiMalware

A software program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware, including but not limited to computer viruses, computer worm, trojan horses, spam, spyware, and adware.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Appliance

Network based visualization provided by a dedicated hardware appliance (e.g., a NAS filer).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Application

Computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software, and media players.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Application Container

An application container is a construct designed to package and run an application or its components running on a shared operating system. Application containers are isolated from other application containers and share the resources of the underlying operating system, allowing for efficient restart, scale-up, or scale-out of applications across clouds. Application containers typically contain microservices.

Sources

NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-180 (Draft), NIST Definition of Microservices, Application Containers and System Virtual Machines, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 2016, 12pp. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/800-180/sp800-180_draft.pdf


Application Events

Specific events within an application may be deemed useful for security monitoring, such as access to protected data or execution of transactions subject to fraud.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Application Firewall

A form of firewall which controls input, output, and/or access from, to, or by an application or service. It operates by monitoring and potentially blocking the input, output, or system service calls that do not meet the firewall’s configured policy.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Application Layer

Layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack that sends and receives data for particular applications such as DNS, HTTP, and SMTP.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/application_layer


Application Monitoring

This capability is a collection of application-related events, including logins, access to sensitive data, transactions, administrative activity.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Application Performance Monitoring

Provides alerting, incremental resource provisioning, etc., when application performance measurements (e.g., response time) exceed service level objectives.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Application Programming Interface (API)

A system access point or library function that has a well-defined syntax and is accessible from application programs or user code to provide well-defined functionality.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/application_programming_interface


Application Services

Think of application services as the processes that developers use to write code, as well as the code itself. Application services are the rules and processes behind the user interface that manipulate the data and perform transactions for the user. In an online bank, this might be a bill payment transaction that deducts the payment amount from the user’s account and sends a check to the payee. In addition to the application services of an IT solution, the Application Services domain also represents the development processes that programmers go through when creating applications.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Application Virtualization

Removes the link between the application and the server(s) that host it. A consumer would access an application instance without regard to where or on what the application was hosted.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Application Vulnerability Scanning

Application vulnerability scanning is an automated capability that will examine the running application and identify areas where weaknesses exist that can be exploited.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Approval Workflow

The process of reviewing requested changes to ensure their appropriateness and receive authorization to continue from the necessary reviewers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Architect

The individual or organization responsible for the set of processes to deploy and manage IT services. They ensure the smooth functioning of the infrastructure and operational environments that support application deployment to internal and external customers, including the network infrastructure, server and device management, computer operations, IT infrastructure library (ITIL) management, and help desk services20.

Sources

CSA. _Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices Integrating Application Container Security Considerations into the Engineering of Trustworthy Secure Systems _(Cloud Security Alliance: 2019) 42


Architectural Pattern

A general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software architecture within a given context. Architectural patterns are similar to software design patterns but have a broader scope. The architectural patterns address various issues in software engineering, such as computer hardware performance limitations, high availability and minimization of a business risk.

Sources

Wikipedia contributors. (2020, March 20). Architectural pattern. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Architectural_pattern


Architecture

Fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements, relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution.

Sources

ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010. (2011). Systems and Software Engineering — Architecture: A Conceptual Model of Architecture Description. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from http://www.iso-architecture.org/ieee1471/cm/.


Architecture Description

A conceptual model, an architecture description:

  • expresses an architecture
  • identifies a system of interest
  • identifies one or more stakeholders
  • identifies one or more concerns (about the system of interest)
  • includes one or more architecture viewpoints and one or more architecture views
  • may include correspondences
  • may include correspondence rules
  • includes one or more architecture rationales22
Sources

ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010. (2011). Systems and Software Engineering — Architecture: A Conceptual Model of Architecture Description. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from http://www.iso-architecture.org/ieee1471/cm/.


Architecture Governance

Set of tools that can be used for developing a broad range of different architecture perspectives usually integrated as a common Architecture Framework.

Elements that the governance process must cover are:

  • Describe a method for defining an information system in terms of a set of building blocks
  • Show how the building blocks fit together
  • Technical roadmap for the standards list
  • Contain a set of tools, and enforce a technology standards list
  • Provide a common vocabulary
  • Governance processes to ensure that existing solutions and new IT services are aligned with the framework.
Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Asset Handling

The processes and procedures involved with managing physical assets (e.g., inventory control, location management, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Asset Management

This container manages all the financial aspects of the Configuration Items and Services provided by the Information Technology organization.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Assets

An asset is anything of value to the organization. Assets can be abstract assets (like processes or reputation), virtual assets (data, for instance), physical assets (cables, a piece of equipment), human resources, money, et cetera.

Sources

ENISA 2015, Technical Guideline on Threats and Assets, https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/technical-guideline-on-threats-and-assets


Asymmetric Encryption

Also known as public-key encryption, is a form of data encryption.
Two mathematically related keys, one called the public key and another called the private key, are generated to be used together. The encryption key (also called the public key) and the corresponding decryption key (also called the private key) are different. The encryption (public) key is used to digitally sign the data (encrypt it). The data can be decrypted only with the mathematically corresponding private key. It is computationally infeasible to derive the private key from the public key and only the recipient of the data is the holder of the private key.

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/symmetric-encryption


Asymmetric Keys

Also referred to as an asymmetric cipher, the encryption key and the decryption keys are separate. In an asymmetric system, each person has two keys. One key, the public key, is shared publicly. The second key, the private key, should never be shared with anyone.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Attack Patterns

Attack Patterns are descriptions of common attacks used by malicious parties that programmers must be aware of to defend against. For instance, the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Top 10 Security Risks describes the top 10 attack patterns used to exploit web applications.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Attribute Provisioning

The creation, maintenance and deactivation of user attributes as they exist in one or more systems, directories or applications, in response to automated or interactive business processes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC)

An access control approach in which access is mediated based on attributes associated with subjects (requesters) and the objects to be accessed. Each object and subject has a set of associated attributes, such as location, time of creation, access rights, etc. Access to an object is authorized or denied depending upon whether the required (e.g., policy-defined) correlation can be made between the attributes of that object and of the requesting subject.

SDPs can use attributes to control access to protected resources, as part of an SDP policy.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/abac

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Audit Findings

Documentation regarding the specific gaps in an organization’s controls discovered through an audit process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Audit Management

It must be possible for an independent auditor to verify that the system conforms to the security policy. To enable this, systems and processes must ensure that security related events are recorded in a tamper-resistant audit log.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Audit Planning

Audit planning ensures the audits are scheduled and take place, are adequately staffed, and are considered part of the overall business delivery aspects.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Authentication

Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system. Policies governing authentication may require single or multiple factors.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/authentication

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Authentication Events

Events indicating a successful or unsuccessful attempt to verify the identity of a user.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Authentication Services

The function or API or process of determining if someone or something is who or what it is declared to be.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Authenticators

Something that the claimant possesses and controls (typically a key or password) that is used to authenticate the claimant’s identity.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/authenticator


Authoritative Time Source

Assures a traceable, standard time source for use within an infrastructure (e.g., server clocks are synced to the time source to enable events occurring on one server to be correlated with those occurring on another during incident response).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Authorization

The right or a permission that is granted to a system entity to access a system resource.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/authorization

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Authorization Events

Events indicating policy decision outcomes about a given subject access to a given object.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Authorization Services

A function, API or process that facilitates access control to restricted areas of the operating system/application/service/data and allows the administrator to restrict a user’s or device’s access to particular features.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Automated Asset Discovery

This capability allows the Configuration Management process to identify new and changing assets across the infrastructure and maintains the existing inventory of Configuration Items. Usually a process must be in place to formalize ownership for these new assets.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Automated Ticketing

The capability of having system generated events automatically spawn incidents.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Automation Gateway

Automation gateways are single or multiple devices that can operate as masters “host” or subordinates “slaves” to transmit data using serial lines or TCP/IP between disparate electronic devices. Manufacturers build automation gateways to transmit signals from instrumentation and control devices back to a main controller or data gathering system.

Sources

http://www.bb-elec.com/Learning-Center/All-White-Papers/Modbus/The-Answer-to-the-14-Most-Frequently-


Availability

The ability of a configuration item or IT Service to perform its agreed Function when required. Availability is usually calculated as a percentage. This calculation is often based on Agreed Service Time and Downtime. It is best practice to calculate availability using measurements of the Business output of the IT Service.

Sources

Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). IT Service Management and the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL). IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) at the University of Utah. Retrieved June 15, 2021, from https://itil.it.utah.edu/index.html.


Availability Management

The overall process that manages the availability of services to their users (both internal and external).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Availability Services

Concerned with assuring the availability of infrastructure components to match the service level objectives. Controls at this level include mirroring of data between geographically dispersed sites, redundant components and the processes for switching between them.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services

Letter B

BIA

Business Impact Assessment (BIA) information regarding the consequences to the organization if a business process and/or its data was unavailable, lost, or stolen.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


BOSS

Business Operation Support Services (BOSS).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


BQP

The class of problems that can be efficiently solved by quantum computers is called BQP (bounded error, quantum, polynomial time). Quantum computers only run probabilistic algorithms, so BQP on quantum computers is the counterpart of BPP (bounded error, probabilistic, polynomial time) on classical computers. BQP is defined as a set of problems solvable with a polynomial-time algorithm, whose probability of error is bounded away from one half. A quantum computer is said to “solve” a problem if, for every instance, its answer will be correct with high probability. If that solution runs in polynomial time, then the problem is in BQP. It is suspected that no Nondeterministic Polynomial-time hardness (NP-hard) problems exist in BQP.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Background Screening

Background verification for personnel, contractors, and third-parties must be in place and should be proportional to the data classification to be accessed under local laws, regulations, and ethics.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Barriers

Deny or limit physical access to a facility or portions of it (e.g., bollards placed between a facility and roadways to prohibit vehicular approach).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)

Fundamental system firmware that modern computers rely on to facilitate the hardware initialization process and transition control to the hypervisor or operating system.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-147B.pdf


Bastion

Platform that provides secure Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) and Secure Shell (SSH) connectivity to all of the VMs in the virtual network in which it is provisioned.

Sources

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/bastion/bastion-overview


Behavioral Malware Prevention

The ability to identify the behavior of malware based on events. For example, an inbound email with attached targeted malware to be filtered via the use of a secure virtual machine to identify when the payload is triggering atypical activity.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Benchmarking

The process of identifying a leader in a given practice area and comparing the organization’s practices against the leader and other organizations. This can help the organization to understand where they compare with other organizations in the industry with respect to knowledge, competency and capability

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Best Practices

The process of developing and following a standard way of doing things that multiple organizations execute in an efficient manner, the process includes methods, techniques, or frameworks that consistently show results superior to those achieved with other means, and that is used as a benchmark. These practices can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered (using mechanisms such as lessons learned).

This capability is intended to maintain quality as an alternative to mandatory legislated standards and can be based on self-assessment or benchmarking.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Best Practices & Regulatory Correlation

A mapping of best practices to mandated regulatory requirements. If a regulatory mandate requires a certain type of data to be encrypted (e.g., PHI in HIPPA), then a vendor best practice document would be correlated with the regulatory mandate to show how the best practices implement it for compliance.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Biometrics

Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Biometrics are considered a form of identity and are used for authentication and access control.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Black Box

Idealized mechanism that accepts inputs and produces outputs, but is designed such that an observer cannot see inside the box or determine exactly what is happening inside that box.

Sources

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso-iec:20543:ed-1:v1:en:term:3.3


Black Box Testing

A method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. This method of test can be applied to virtually every level of software testing: unit, integration, system and acceptance.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-192.pdf


Black Listing Filtering

Blacklisting is a form of filtering where a list is created that registers entities that are prohibited access or are unwelcome signatures. When a blacklist is used, the default is to ‘permit all’ except for those entries that are enumerated in the filter. These are typically used when it is easier (and therefore a shorter list) to determine what entities should not be allowed.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


BlockBased Virtualization

Virtualization at the level of block level devices (e.g., the host is presented with a virtual disk device).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Branding Protection

The monitoring of external entities and activity that poses risk to the organization’s brand, such as imposter web sites, typosquatting, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Break Glass Administrator

Are emergency access accounts that are highly privileged, and they are not assigned to specific individuals. Emergency access accounts are limited to emergency or “break glass”’ scenarios where normal administrative accounts can’t be used.

Sources

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/roles/security-emergency-access


Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD)

An enterprise policy used to permit partial or full integration of user-owned mobile devices for business purposes

Sources

https://www.isaca.org/resources/glossary#glossz


Brute Force Attacks

An attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works.

Sources

https://owasp.org/www-community/controls/Blocking_Brute_Force_Attacks


Build

The process of compiling source code and configurations into one or more deployable units to be handed off to the change management process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Business Assessment

Ensure that the business risks are identified, documented, and appropriate treatments are identified.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Continuity

Ensures that business continuity is considered in the risk management process. This should not only address business continuity but business resumption as well.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Continuity Planning

Preparing a business continuity plan and all the steps required to put it into action should it be required.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Continuity Testing

Testing a business continuity plan to ensure that it is effective.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BCDR)

The implementation of measures designed to ensure operational resiliency in the event of any service interruptions.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Business Impact Analysis

Ensures that the business impact, and not only the technical aspects of risk, are considered in the risk management process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Intelligence

Business intelligence refers to techniques used in identifying, extracting and analyzing business data. BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Business Operation Support Services (BOSS)

The BOSS domain is all the corporate support functions such as Human Resources, Compliance, and Legal that are critical to a security program. It is also the place where the company’s operations and its systems are monitored for any signs of abuse or fraud.

BOSS was designed based on best practices and reference frameworks with the proven success of aligning the business and transforming the information security practice across organizations into a business enabler.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Business Owner

A Product Ownership role that represents the person who is accountable to the Business for maximizing the overall value of the Deliverable Results; A role defined to represent management outside the Team. In practice the Business Owner is either the ‘lead’ Stakeholder, the Team’s Sponsor, or the Product Owner’s Product Owner.

Sources

Scrum Dictionary. Business Owner. ScrumDictionary.Com. Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https:// scrumdictionary.com/term/business-owner/.


Business Strategy

Documentation of the business goals and objectives that can be used to determine the information technology and security strategies in support of the business.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Business-to-Business (B2B)

Business-to-Business (B2B) applications allow enterprises to exchange common transactions in bulk, for example purchase orders, invoices, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Business-to-Consumer (B2C)

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) applications are the online presence of an enterprise that allow it’s customers to conduct business with the enterprise over the internet.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Business-to-Employee (B2E)

Business-to-Employee (B2E) applications allow employees of an enterprise to transact the business of the company

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Business-to-Mobile (B2M)

Business-to-Mobile (B2M) applications utilize a mobile device such as a smartphone to enable customers or employees to interact with a business’s systems from anywhere at any time.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain

Letter C

CFS

This is a code-based signature scheme designed by N. Courtois, N. Sendrier and M. Finiasz in 2001 [CFS01]. 

Sources

[CFS01] N. Courtois, M. Finiasz, and N. Sendrier. How to Achieve a McEliece-Based Digital Signature Scheme, ASIACRYPT 2001.


CMDB

A configuration management database (CMDB) is a repository of information related to an information system’s components. It contains the details of the configuration items (CI) in the IT infrastructure. A CMDB helps an organization understand the relationships between these components and track their configuration. The CMDB records CIs and details about the important attributes and relationships between CIs. Configuration managers usually describe CIs using three configurable attributes: Technical, Ownership, Relationship

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


CPS (Cyber Physical Systems)

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are systems of collaborating computational entities that are in intensive connection with the surrounding physical world and its on-going processes, providing and using, at the same time, data-accessing and data-processing services available on the internet. In other words, CPS can generally be characterized as “physical and engineered systems whose operations are monitored, controlled, coordinated, and integrated by a computing and communicating core” (Rajkumar et al 2010). The interaction between the physical and cyber elements is of key importance: “CPS is about the intersection, not the union, of the physical and cyber. It is not sufficient to separately understand the physical components and the computational components. We must understand their interaction” (Lee and Seshia 2014).

Sources

https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-642-35950-7_16790-1


CRLs

A certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of certificates that have been revoked, and therefore should not be relied upon.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


CSA DevSecOps Software Delivery Pipeline (CDDP)

Security-enabled software delivery pipeline aligned with DevSecOps principles.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Cache

Caching is a requirement for building scalable microservice applications. Data can be cached in memory or on fast local disks.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Capability Mapping

The capabilities of an Information Security Program can be described by a Security Service Catalog that is part of a larger catalog that some IT organizations document and publish to the business. These capabilities can be mapped in a way that describes what a business does to reach its objectives and promotes a strong relationship between the business model and the technical security infrastructure that supports the business requirements resulting in a view that can be understood by both the business and IT.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Capacity Planning

The process for assuring that the capacity (CPU power, network bandwidth, etc.) to deliver a service is continuously in line with the demand for that service.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Certificate Authority (CA)

A trusted entity that issues and revokes public key certificates.

SDP architectures rely on a CA, which the controllers use as a root of trust, and for generation of the TLS certificate. SDPs can also leverage U2F or UAF for user or device authentication without additional CA requirements, separate rom the CA utilized for mutual TLS.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/certification_authority#:~:text=Definition(s)%3A,and%20revoke%20public%20key%20certificates

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Certificate Forgery

Data transmitted from an online certificate issuing server to output devices (such as a PC or printer) can be accessed by a hacker and modified into a false certificate.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6922060


Certificate of Cloud Auditing Knowledge (CCAK)

Created by the Cloud Security Alliance, the CCAK is the first credential available for industry professionals to demonstrate their expertise in the essential principles of auditing cloud computing systems.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/education/ccak/


Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge (CCSK)

Created by the Cloud Security Alliance, the CCSK is widely recognized as the standard of expertise for cloud security. It provides a cohesive and vendor-neutral understanding of how to secure data in the cloud.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/education/ccsk/


Change Logs

From a security standpoint, monitoring the change logs and comparing it to configuration management changes could detect an unauthorized change in the environment.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Change Management

The process of managing the life cycle of changes in the IT environment. Change is a major pattern that acts as an intermediary between request, release and configuration/provisioning. Change management allows for management of scope, impact analysis, as well as scheduling of change. Change management provides one of the primary inputs into configuration management from a data maintenance perspective to keep application data up to date.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Change Review Board

A cross-functional team charged with ensuring that all changes to the environment are carefully considered and reviewed to minimize impact to users and existing services.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Chargeback

This process manages the IT service consumption by an area or user across the organization, as well calculates the associated costs to those services including People, Technology and supporting materials. The process ensures that there is a clear understanding on the TCO and costs per service (i.e. Desktop support, Network services, Security Services, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Ciphertext

Data in its encrypted form.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/ciphertext


Circle

Circle is CSA’s online community forum platform where you can connect with peers and industry leaders. Circle is a global community that facilitates resources and security discussion within a diverse group of CSA partners.

Sources

https://circle.cloudsecurityalliance.org/


Clear Desk Policy

A corporate policy that ensures sensitive information is not left out in the open for viewing or theft by unauthorized users.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Client Application Streaming

The Endpoint component of an application streaming solution. Clients could be tablets, phones, smart devices.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Client-Side Discovery

The client requests the network locations of available services from the service registry.

Sources

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture


Client-to-Authenticator Protocol (CTAP)

An application layer protocol for communication between a roaming authenticator and another client/platform, as well as bindings of this application protocol to a variety of transport protocols using different physical media. The application layer protocol defines requirements for such transport protocols.

SDP can use this as an alternative to UAF and U2F for authenticating users to online services. CTAP enables external devices such as mobile handsets or FIDO security keys to work with W3C web authentication and serve as authenticators to desktop applications and web services.

Sources

https://fidoalliance.org/specs/fido-v2.0-id-20180227/fido-client-to-authenticator-protocol-v2.0-id-20180227.html

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


ClientID

256-bit numeric identifier, assigned per user-device pair. This field is used to distinguish the user, device, or logical group that is sending the packet.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/software-defined-perimeter-zero-trust-specification-v2/


Closest Vector Problem (CVP)

The Closest Vector Problem is Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hardness (NP-hard) and requires the closest vector of a given vector to be found in a lattice. This is a hard problem that occurs in lattice-based cryptography. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)

On-premises, or cloud-based security policy enforcement points, placed between cloud service consumers and cloud service providers to combine and interject enterprise security policies as the cloud-based resources are accessed. CASBs consolidate multiple types of security policy enforcement.

SDPs typically rely on an organization’s existing identity and access management system (and/or external CASB) or an external federated identity service for user authentication and user attributes (such as role or group membership).

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/cloud-access-security-brokers-casbs

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM)

A controls framework aligned to the CSA Security Guidance for Cloud Computing that is considered a de-facto standard for cloud security assurance and compliance.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/cloud-controls-matrix/


Cloud Incident Response (CIR)

CIR can be defined as the process designed to manage cyberattacks in a cloud environment and comprises four phases: • Phase 1: Preparation • Phase 2: Detection and Analysis • Phase 3: Containment, Eradication and, Recovery • Phase 4: Postmortem

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Cloud Monitoring

Collection of events associated with the usage of the services provided by cloud solutions at all layers of the application stack.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Cloud Security Monitoring and Compliance

Security technology that monitors virtual servers and assesses data, applications, and infrastructure for security risks.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Cloud Security Posture Management (CSPM)

Security technology that can discover, assess, and resolve cloud infrastructure misconfigurations vulnerable to attack.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Cloud operating system

A type of operating system (OS) designed to operate within cloud computing and virtualization environments. A cloud operating system manages the operation, execution, and processes of virtual machines, virtual servers, and virtual infrastructure, as well as back-end hardware and software resources.

Sources

Cloud OS Security Specification v2.0


Cloud-Native KMS

The KMS is built and owned by the same provider that delivers the cloud service the customer consumes, and all components of the KMS are in the cloud.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/key-management-whenusing-cloud-services/


Code Samples

Code samples provide snippets of code that demonstrate to programmers how to code a specific algorithm. For secure coding purposes, examples could include writing a database query that is not susceptible to SQL injection.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Code-based cryptography

This is a sub-area of quantum-safe cryptography and includes cryptographic schemes whose security is related to the computational hard problem of decoding linear error-correcting codes. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Collaboration

A presentation modality geared towards joint efforts on a combined effort such as a project or a document. Collaboration applications share files, allow multiple editors of documents, and often provide calendars, task tracking, and messaging for its participants.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Community cloud

The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off-premises.

Sources

NIST 2011, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/ sp/800-145/final


Company Owned

Devices purchased, owned, and managed by the enterprise and given out to employees or perhaps rented by customers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Compliance

The goal that organizations aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws, policies, and regulations.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Compliance Management

It analyzes compliance with all specified internal information security policies, control standards and procedures.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Compliance Monitoring

Processes and procedures for assuring that a service is being provided in compliance with applicable policies and regulatory frameworks. This can be implemented through either periodic audit or continuous monitoring.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Compliance Testing

Compliance testing determines the degree to which information security policies, standards, and control procedures are being adhered to. One example is scanning to detect the presence or absence of mandated patches and updates on virtual and physical machines.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Computer Events

Events generated by servers, desktops and other Endpoint devices including start ups, shutdowns, configuration changes, and system errors.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Configuration Management

The process and procedures for managing the configuration of assets (servers, storage arrays, network equipment, etc.) to assure that their configuration as deployed matches that specified by policy, standards and guidelines.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Configuration Management Database (CMDB)

A configuration management database (CMDB) is a repository of information related to all the components of an information system. It contains the details of the configuration items (CI) in the IT infrastructure. A CMDB helps an organization understand the relationships between these components and track their configuration. The CMDB records CIs and details about the important attributes and relationships between CIs. Configuration managers usually describe CIs using three configurable attributes: Technical, Ownership, Relationship

Sources

https://ea.cloudsecurityalliance.org/display.php?id=data_info4018&_ga=2.250011589.277413644.1656439470-2107700575.1655484199


Configuration Rules (Metadata)

This metadata contains the configuration rules for how to deploy configuration changes to specific configuration items.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Connectivity & Delivery

Connectivity & Delivery services are the underlying mechanisms that Integration Middleware uses to move the messages between applications. These services must also protect the messages being delivered, including encrypting the messages to hide their contents.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Consensus Assessment Initiative Questionnaire (CAIQ)

Offers an industry-accepted way to document what security controls exist in IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS services. It provides a set of Yes/No questions a cloud consumer and cloud auditor may wish to ask of a cloud provider to ascertain their compliance to the Cloud Controls Matrix.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/consensus-assessments-initiative-questionnaire-v3-1/


Consumer Service Platform

This container holds the various types of presentation modalities that are consumer-oriented as opposed to enterprise-oriented.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Contact / Authority Maintenance

Ensures that contact information for relevant authorities and critical business partners is kept up-to-date, so it is correct when you need it and it also enforces a risk limit for the corporate role level.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Container Lifecycle Events

The main events in the life cycle of a container are create container, run container, pause container, unpause container, start container, stop container, restart container, kill container, destroy container.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Container Management Platform

A container management platform is an application designed to manage containers and their various operations, including but not limited to deployment, configuration, scheduling, and destruction.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Container Rehosting

Redeploying containers on another platform.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Container Resource Limit

The maximum amount of resources (CPU, memory (+swap) and disk (space + speed)) that the system will allow a container to use.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Container Resource Requests

The amount of CPU, memory (+swap), and disk (space + speed) that the system will allocate to the container considering the resource limit.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Container Resources

Four resources required for containers to operate are CPU, memory (+swap), disk (space + speed), and Network.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Containers

See: Application Container

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/cloud-security-glossary#A


Content Filtering

The technique whereby content is blocked or allowed based on analysis of its content, rather than its source or other criteria. It is most widely used on the internet to filter email and web access.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Continuous Auditing

Allows an organization to show control compliance at all times. As a consequence of the shortcomings of traditional assurance tools, organizations that want continuous assurance must rethink their approach to security assessments. For continuous assurance, manual assessments must be traded for automated measurements, which largely leave humans out of the loop. Instead of assessing controls directly, tools are used to measure the security attributes of an information system and infer indirectly whether controls are effectively in place.

Sources

The Continuous Audit Metrics Catalog : CSA


Continuous Monitoring

performs the function of continuous risk management presenting the current security posture of the organization. Using industry approved risk management frameworks, Continuous Monitoring collects inventory of deployed organizational assets (including but not limited to current patch/version status, vulnerabilities, threats, and traffic) and generates ongoing risk scores across the enterprise. The intent of Continuous Monitoring is to reduce the time and effort required to identify security risks, assist in defining mitigation strategies, and implement any necessary controls reducing the security risk window. 

Sources

Defining Categories of Security as a Service: Continuous Monitoring : CSA


Contractors

All third-parties bound to a contract to provide a service for the organization are not considered employees but have access to various resources and data across the company. This capability is intended to manage these contractors and the associated processes to onboard and release them.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Contracts

An agreement between two or more parties with the serious intent of creating a legal obligation or obligations. Contracts between an enterprise and its service providers designate the responsibilities of each party and the penalties associated when service level agreements are not met.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Control

The means of managing risk, including policies, procedures, guidelines, practices or organizational structures, which can be of an administrative, technical, management, or legal nature. Scope Notes: Also used as a synonym for safeguard or countermeasure. See also Internal control.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Control Framework

A set of fundamental controls that facilitates the discharge of business process owner responsibilities to prevent financial or information loss in an enterprise.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Control Layer

An SDN control layer, which consists of four main components, namely a high level language, a rule update process, a network status collection process and a network status synchronization process. The control layer bridges the application layer and the infrastructure layer.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6834762


Control Loop

A control loop is the fundamental building block of industrial control systems. It consists of all the physical components and control functions necessary to automatically adjust the value of a measured process variable (PV) to equal the value of a desired set-point (SP). It includes the process sensor, controller function, and final control element (FCE) which are all required for automatic control.

Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_loop


Control Objective

A statement of the desired result or purpose to be achieved by implementing control procedures in a particular process.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Control Plane

Used by various infrastructure components (both enterprise-owned and from service providers) to maintain and configure assets; judge, grant, or deny access to resources; and perform any necessary operations to set up communication paths between resources.

SDP architectures separate the control of connections called the ‘control plane’ from the actual connections used to transfer data. The control plane consists of those connections that enable the vetting of users, devices, and ensure access to authorized services only providing extra security for those connections used to transfer data.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Controlled Physical Access

The security controls that limit physical access to a facility and its contents.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Controller (SDP Controller)

Determines which SDP hosts can communicate with each other. The controller may relay information to external authentication services such as attestation, geo-location, and/or identity servers.

An appliance or process that controls secure access to isolated servicesby ensuring that users are authenticated and authorized, devices are validated, communications are established, and user and management traffic are separated. Initiating hosts (often user devices) and accepting hosts (services and in some instances the SDP gateway) connect to the SDP controller.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/Software_Defined_Perimeter.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Controllers (or Control Server)

Controllers (or control servers) are most often comprised of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), designed to perform logic functions executed by electrical hardware such as relays, switches or sensors. Other types of controllers include Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) that differ from PLCs in that RTUs are more suitable for wide geographical telemetry, often using wireless communications while PLCs are more suitable for local area control. 

Master Terminal Units (MTU’s) are controllers that serve as the Master in an ICS system, controlling the operation of the Slave subsystems (PLCs and RTUs).

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/industrial-control-system


Counter Threat Management

The overall process of managing threats and countermeasures.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Credential Stuffing

A cyberattack method in which attackers use lists of compromised user credentials to breach into a system. The attacker uses bots for automation and scale and is based on the assumption that many users reuse usernames and passwords across multiple services.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Crisis Management

The overall coordination of an organization’s response to a crisis effectively with the overall goal of avoiding or minimizing damage to the organization’s profitability, reputation, or ability to operate.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Cross Cloud Security Incident Response

Because of the ubiquitous nature of cloud computing, a security incident may be detected in or affect several cloud instances. The incident response plan must include processes and procedures for handling trans-cloud security incidents.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Cross-cloud capabilities

Unified data management platform that facilitates secure data sharing should carry out cross-cloud management. The platform gives the organization a single source of truth by allowing data to move freely across clouds. Cross-cloud compatibility drives operational efficiency in the multi-cloud.

Sources

https://www.cloudbolt.io/blog/driving-operational-efficiency-in-multi-cloud-with-cross-cloud-management/


Cryptographic Algorithm

A well-defined computational procedure that takes variable inputs, including a cryptographic key, and produces an output.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-57pt1r5.pdf


Cryptographic Services

A set of cryptographic functions (e.g., encoding and decoding, encryption and decryption), which computer application programs may use, to implement security solutions (e.g., strong user authentication or secure email). For example, in Microsoft Windows, a Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) is a software library that implements the Microsoft CryptoAPI (CAPI).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


CxO

A term for Cloud Security Alliance programs that are targeted towards C-Level executives.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/cxo-trust/

Letter D

D-Wave machine

This is the first quantum machine publicly available (from D-Wave Systems, Canada). The machine is not a general purpose quantum computer, but instead is targeted at quantum annealing. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


DB

See Databases (earlier)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


DBMS Repositories

Database Management Systems used to store user accounts and their data as tables within a database.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


DCS (Distributed Control Systems)

Refers to control achieved by intelligence that is distributed throughout the system, rather than by a centrally located single unit.

Sources

NIST SP 800-82r2 https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-82/rev-2/final


DLP Events

Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) events are triggered whenever privileged data is intercepted on its way out of the organization.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)

In computer security, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) or perimeter network is a network area (a subnetwork) that sits between an internal network and an external network. The purpose of a DMZ is that connections from the internal and the external network to the DMZ are permitted, whereas connections from the DMZ are only permitted to the external network – hosts in the DMZ may not connect to the internal network. This allows the DMZ’s hosts to provide services to the external network while protecting the internal network in case intruders compromise a host in the DMZ. For someone on the external network who wants to illegally connect to the internal network, the DMZ is a dead end. 

The Security DMZ is used for providing controlled and secure access to services used by external personnel or systems. Access may be granted to control system networks, control system equipment, or other applications services provided.

Sources

https://www.us-cert.gov/ics/Control_System_Security_DMZ-Definition.html


DPI

Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) (also called complete packet inspection and Information extraction - IX -) is a form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data part (and possibly also the header) of a packet as it passes an inspection point, searching for protocol non-compliance, viruses, spam, intrusions or predefined criteria to decide if the packet can pass or if it needs to be routed to a different destination, or to collect statistical information.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


DR & BC Plans

Documentation of Disaster Recover (DR) Plans to restore IT operations and Business Continuity (BC) Plans to ensure continuous service by the enterprise during planned or unplanned outages.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


DRP

The document defines the resources, actions, tasks, and data required to manage the business recovery process in the event of a business interruption. The plan is designed to assist in restoring the business process within the stated disaster recovery goals.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Daemon

A software application that is not invoked explicitly, but lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur

Sources

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso-iec:tr:13066:-4:ed-1:v1:en:term:2.10


Dashboard

The dashboard provides a top-level view of various aspects of the information services. The dashboard usually includes aggregated Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Key Quality Indicators (KQIs).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Data

The digital representation of anything in any form (SNIA Dictionary).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Data / Asset Classification

A way to approach security policy and its implementation that involves the classification of information into one of several categories, each of which has an associated security policy. Other assets such as servers and endpoints, can be similarly classified. In some cases, data can only be processed or stored on computers that share the same classification designation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Classification

The process to describe data’s business value to separate it into categories such as public, private, secret, to guide data handling procedures.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Data De-Identification

The process for removing identifying information from datasets, most commonly to protect the privacy of individuals, by using methods such as data masking. Data de-identification may also be used to protect organizations, such as businesses included in statistical surveys, or other information such as the spatial location of mineral or archaeological finds or endangered species.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Discovery

Scanning and classifying data held in Network, Endpoint, and Server.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Governance

As the organization manages data between Applications, Services, and Enterprise Information Integration activities, the need to have a well define governance model that outlines and looks for compliance on how data is massaged, transformed, and stored throughout the IT infrastructure including internal and external services (i.e., SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ASP, or others).

Processes included in data governance include data ownership, how data should be classified, and responsibilities that data/ asset owners have for their applications and services, and the necessary controls for data throughout the lifecycle.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Data Historian

A centralized database located in the control system LAN supporting data archival and data analysis using statistical process control techniques.

Sources

https://www.us-cert.gov/ics/Control_System_Historian-Definition.html


Data Life Cycle Management

The Data Life Cycle Management covers the following six phases: create, store, use, share, archive, and destroy. Although it is shown as a linear progression, once created, data may flow between stages without restriction, and may not pass through all stages during usefulness.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

DLP refers to systems that enforce policies to safeguard critical data such as Intellectual Property and customer information and ensure it doesn’t escape from the enterprise to unintended parties. These solutions discover and classify sensitive data, define and manage policies based on content and context, monitor and enforce movement of data, as well as report, audit, and document incidents of data leakage.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Masking

The process of obscuring (masking) specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive data are not available outside of the authorized environment.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Mining

Data mining is the ability to drill-down on KPIs and KQIs in order to find the underlying root cause for the indicators’ results. The actual data mining task can be an automatic or semi-automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract previously unknown interesting patterns such as groups of data records (cluster analysis), unusual records (anomaly detection), and dependencies (association rule mining). These patterns can then be seen as a kind of summary of the input data and used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics. For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can then be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Data Obscuring

A method of protecting fields or records of data by some form of obfuscation such as encryption. Data obscuring techniques can be used in source code, for example, to prevent reverse engineering of applications. There are also low tech solutions such as ink stamps to redact sensitive information on hard copies.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Ownership / Stewardship

This capability manages the communications, responsibilities, and associated processes for personnel that interacts with data throughout its lifecycle. Roles associated with the data interaction include Data Owners, Asset Custodians, Data Users, Supporting Services, and Delegates.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Data Plane

Used for communication between software components. This communication channel may not be possible before the path has been established via the control plane.

SDP architectures separate the control of connections from the actual connections used to transfer data called the ‘data plane’. The data plane consists of two-way encrypted connections typically using mutual TLS or another mutual authentication mechanism.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Data Protection

In the information age, data is an asset. However, most data is valuable only if it is protected. Data protection needs to cover all data lifecycle stages, data types, and data states. Data stages include create, store, access, roam, share, and retire. Data types include unstructured data such as word processing documents, structured data such as data within databases, and semi-structured data such as emails. Data states include data at rest (DAR), data in transit (DIT) (aka data in motion, data in flight), and data in use (DIU). Data Protection controls include data lifecycle management, data loss prevention, intellectual property protection with digital rights management, and cryptographic services such as key management and PKI/symmetric encryption.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Protection Addendum (DPA)

A DPA consists of regulatory requirements stating data security and processing terms, including disclosure, security incident notification, data transfers, use of subprocessors, and compliance with data privacy regimes (e.g., GDPR, CCPA). DPAs are good practice for any organization to eliminate ambiguity with respect to organization data handling.

Sources

Recommendations for Adopting a Cloud-Native Key Management Service with an External Key Origin : CSA


Data Seeding

A way of detecting and tracking data scraping, plagiarism, and theft is to seed the data with either easily identifiable items to trace where the data ends up or with bogus records to destroy the value of the data. For example, by inserting a record in a phone number database with an odd name, the true originator/owner could identify that bogus record if it appears in a competitor’s database.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data Segregation

Data segregation is the process and controls that ensure data is segregated in a multi-tenant environment, so each tenant has access to his and only his data

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Data Tagging

A data tag is a keyword or term assigned typically as a form of metadata to a piece of information. It helps describe an item and facilitates it being found again by browsing or searching.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data at Rest Encryption (DB, File, SAN, Desktop, Mobile)

Encryption of “Data at Rest” (data recorded on storage media).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data in Transit Encryption (Transitory, Fixed)

Encryption of “Data in Transit” (data being transferred between two nodes in a network).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Data in Use Encryption (Memory)

Encryption of “Data in Use” (data in resident memory, or swap, or processor cache or disk cache, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Database Events

Events regarding activity within the database management systems including logins, transactions, and administrative changes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Database Monitoring

This capability is a collection of database management system related events, including logins, queries, transactions, and administrative activity.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Database Virtualization

Database virtualization is the decoupling of the database layer, which lies between the storage and application layers within the application stack. Virtualization at the database layer allows hardware resources to be extended to allow for better sharing resources between applications and users, masking of the physical location and configuration of a database from querying programs, as well as enable more scalable computing.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Databases (DBs)

Compliance testing against a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Defense-in-Depth

Information security strategy integrating people, technology, and operations capabilities to establish variable barriers across multiple layers and missions of the organization.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-53r5.pdf


Denial of Service (DoS)

The act of making a system, feature or resource unavailable for intended users. In cloud testing, denial of service often takes the form of destruction or encryption of cloud resources, disablement of accounts, credentials or users.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Desktop 'Client' Virtualization

Concerned with how virtual instances of the traditional desktop are created, presented and managed.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Desktops

Desktops are the classic computer that typically sits on or under a desktop and includes a CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and other peripheral devices.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


DevOps

Application of software development methodologies to infrastructure operations. 

Sources

As defined in ISO 27000 and Information Security Management through Reflexive Security : CSA.


DevOpsSec

Application of information security principles and practices to protect processes that utilize DevOps culture, practices, and workflows.

Sources

As defined in ISO 27000 and Information Security Management through Reflexive Security : CSA.


DevSecOps (DSO)

The integration of continuous security principles, processes, and technologies into DevOps culture, practices, and workflows.

Sources

As defined in ISO 27000 and Information Security Management through Reflexive Security : CSA.


Developer

A business or technology professional that builds software programs; a computer programmer (syn.) can refer to a specialist in one area of computers, or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software in one or more computer programming languages.

Sources

Wikipedia contributors. (2021b, August 7). Programmer. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Programmer


Development Process

The Development Process must address security concerns while the solution is being built using tools like source code scanners that can locate common security flaws in the code and web application vulnerability scanners that can test if a web application can be manipulated with common techniques used by hackers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Device Attestation

The ability to provide proof that elements of the device (e.g., firmware) have not been tampered with.

SDPs should include a mechanism to prove that the proper device holds the private key and that the software running on the device can be trusted. Device attributes and contents (e.g. files, registry keys) may be used to validate the device.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/CSWP/NIST.CSWP.09082020-draft.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Device Onboarding Process

Involves the installation of the physical device and the setup of credentials so that it can securely communicate with its target cloud or platform.

Device onboarding for SDP entails the process of including new devices such as mobile phones, servers, and other IoT elements into an SDP.

Sources

https://media.fidoalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Introduction-to-FIDO-Device-Onboard-1.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Digital Rights Management

DRM is a term for access control technologies used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders, enterprises, and individuals to limit the use of digital content and devices. The term has taken on at least two meanings. One refers to technology supporting the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act to protect copyrighted media, maintain royalties, and ensure artistic control. The other definition applies to enterprise rights management technologies that attempt to put security controls closer to the enterprise data itself, often in encryption and metadata that carry access control information.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS)

A cloud computing service model that allows an organization to back up its data and IT infrastructure in a third-party cloud computing environment from which it is possible to regain access and functionality to IT infrastructure after a disaster.

Sources

Disaster Recovery as a Service : CSA


Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)

Involves multiple computing devices in disparate locations sending repeated requests to a server with the intent to overload it and ultimately render it inaccessible.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.1800-15.pdf


Domain Name System (DNS) Poisoning

Results in a DNS resolver storing (i.e., caching) invalid or malicious mappings between symbolic names and IP addresses.

Sources

https://www.cs.cornell.edu/~shmat/shmat_securecomm10.pdf


Domain Unique Identifier

A unique reference number used as an identifier in computer software (for example GUID, 32-character hexadecimal string, used for Microsoft’s implementation of the Universally unique identifier standard.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST)

Security testing that analyzes a running application by exercising application functionality and detecting vulnerabilities based on application behavior and response.
Note 1 to entry: Also called “blackbox testing”

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Dynamic Policies

Access to resources is determined by dynamic policy—including the observable state of client identity, application/service, and the requesting asset—and may include other behavioral and environmental attributes.

Policy is the set of access rules based on attributes that an organization assigns to a subject, data asset, or application.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf


Dynamic Tunnel Mode (DTM)

The proposed SDP protocol and encapsulation for the IH to communicate with one or more AHs.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf

Letter E

E-Readers

A presentation modality that simulates the reading of a book or other printed material.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


E-mail

A presentation modality that presents an in-box of messages and allows users to send new messages or organize old messages into folders. Often email is combined with calendar functions and contact management functions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


EMS (Energy Management System)

An energy management system (EMS) is a computer-aided tool used by power system operators to monitor, control, and carry out optimal energy management. The purpose of an EMS is to determine power generation or power demands that minimize a certain objective such as generation cost, power loss, or environmental effect. 

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/energy-management-system


Elasticsearch

An open-source, distributed data search and analytics engine built on Apache Lucene. You can send data in the form of JSON documents to Elasticsearch using the RESTful API or ingestion tools such as Logstash. Elasticsearch automatically stores the original document and adds a searchable reference to the document in the cluster’s index. You can then search and retrieve the document using the Elasticsearch API. Amazon provides fully managed Elasticsearch services that enables you to deploy, secure, and run Elasticsearch at scale.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Electronic Surveillance

Continuous observation of an area to detect intrusion, record access and monitor movement.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Elevation of Privileges

The act of leveraging a vulnerability or configuration to enable or achieve an elevation of access or privilege beyond what was intended. In cloud testing, elevation of privileges often takes the form leveraging misconfigured IAM permissions that allow escalation or permissions employed by compromised or targeted services and systems.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Email Journaling

Monitoring the contents of email to detect data loss, malware spread, or other email-based threats. Email journaling is the processes and procedures that ensure all email traffic is recorded and preserved as required for regulatory compliance or support litigation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Email Security

Provides control over inbound and outbound email, protecting the organization from phishing, malicious attachments, and spam, and providing business continuity options.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Emergency Changes

Changes generated to fix an issue on a production service or application.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Employee Awareness

This capability will focus on the management of materials and tools associated with the process of providing awareness to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements, security policies, and risk management best practices that will ensure that the organization will have a secure, compliant, and safe working environment. Examples of this include Clean-Desk Policy, Disaster Recovery, On-Line training, PII/PHI information protection, among others.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Employee Code of Conduct

This capability is intended to manage the lifecycle for a formal agreement between the personnel that interacts with the organization’s data, assets, and services. The code of conduct must include expected behavior relevant to the organization from the Regulatory perspective, Information Security Policies and Risk Management best practices.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Employee Termination

The process for ensuring that an employee exit procedure minimizes the risk of an ex-employee misusing information assets after their term of employment. The process includes access removal to electronic accounts typically, turn off VPN or external email services, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Employment Agreements

All contractual agreements entered between the organization and the employees, contractors, third party users, and customers, which specify the terms and conditions of their employment or service contract before granting access to data and services, which must explicitly include the parties responsible for information security. Examples include a privacy policy, intellectual property agreements, acceptable use, website terms, and conditions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Encryption

The process of obfuscating data using cryptographic and numerical ciphers. Transforming clear-text into cipher-text to make it unreadable.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Endpoint

Computing devices used by users (e.g., desktop, tablet, smartphone).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Endpoint (Data in Use)

See Data in Use Encryption (DLP in this case)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Endpoint Monitoring

Collection of events associated with end user usage of devices.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Endpoints

Endpoints are the devices that users interact with when using an IT solution. They are called Endpoints because they are at the edge of the solution where technology meets humans.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Enterprise Architect

The individual or organization responsible for strategic design recommendations. They determine, by applying their knowledge of cloud, container and microservices components to the problems of the business; the best architecture to meet the strategic needs of the business. Additionally, they develop and maintain solution roadmaps and oversee their adoption working with Developers and Operators to ensure an efficient and effective solution implementation.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Enterprise Architecture

Is both a methodology and a set of tools that enable security architects, enterprise architects and risk management professionals to fulfill a set of common requirements that risk managers must use to assess the operational status of internal IT security and cloud provider controls.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/working-groups/enterprise-architecture/


Enterprise Operator

The individual or organization responsible for the set of processes to deploy and manage IT services. They ensure the smooth functioning of the infrastructure and operational environments that support application deployment to internal and external customers, including the network infrastructure, server and device management, computer operations, IT infrastructure library (ITIL) management, and help desk services.

Sources

Wikipedia. Information technology operations. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_ technology_operations


Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a type of software platform known as middleware, which works behind the scenes to aid application-to-application communication. Think of an ESB as a “bus” that picks up information from one system and delivers it to another. An ESB provides a secure, scalable and cost-effective infrastructure that enables real-time data exchange among many systems. Data from one system, known as a service provider, can be put on the enterprise service bus as a message, which is sent immediately to a service consumer of the data. If a new system wants to consume this same data, all it has to do is plug into the bus in the same manner.

Sources

https://it.ucla.edu/news/what-esb


Enterprise Service Platform

This container holds the various types of presentation modalities oriented to enterprise users in the workplace, or towards customers and partners of an enterprise.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Entitlement Review

A process checking appropriate existing user and role authorization access.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Entropy source

The combination of a noise source—such as a Quantum Random Number Generator, health tests and an (optional) conditioning component—to produce full-entropy random bits [NIST].

Sources

[NIST] M. S. Turan, E. Barker, J. Kelsey, K. A. McKay, M. L. Baish and M. Boyle. Recommendation for the Entropy Sources Used for Random Bit Generation (Second DRAFT). NIST Special Publication 800-90B, 2016.


Environmental Risk Management

The general process of assessing and controlling risks arising from the environment surrounding an infrastructure (e.g., estimating the size of a backup generator plant to provide power continuity in case of utility power loss).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Equipment Location

The processes and procedures involved in siting equipment in appropriate locations (e.g., locating critical network equipment is a secured room with redundant power, temperature controls, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Equipment Maintenance

Concerned with assuring that physical infrastructure devices are appropriately maintained to assure their continuous operations. Examples include periodic inspection, cleaning and replacement of air filters, proactive replacement of components when degradation is detected, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Event Classification

An event may or may not indicate that an incident has occurred or is in progress. Event classification provides processes for analysis and event correlation to provide an assessment and confidence estimate for the occurrence of an incident

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Event Correlation

Process of analyzing and associating an event from one source with events from the same or other sources to derive additional information or detect activity patterns.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Event Mining

Statistical analysis of historical events to determine patterns of normal and abnormal behavior.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Exceptions

A deviation that includes granting an exception to a standing policy when it cannot be met or can only partially be met. In this way, the Information Security team is aware of a scenario that is out of compliance and can, therefore, understand the associated risk and monitor the exception. Sometimes the exception is time-bound and reviewing periodically to assess risk and allow a remediation plan to be met.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


External

Focuses on the ability of a remote attacker to get to the internal network. This form of penetration testing aims to access data located within the internal network by exploiting externally exposed devices, including servers, clients, applications and wireless access points.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


External (VLAN)

a VLAN is a group of hosts (on premise, in the cloud, between clouds or hybrid) with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain, regardless of their physical location.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


External SLAs

Service Level Agreements with external entities that codify the specific services to be delivered and the performance criteria governing that delivery.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


eDiscovery

e-discovery is concerned with how data responsive to a planned or ongoing litigation is identified, preserved, and produced.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


eDiscovery Events

Electronic Discovery (eDiscovery) Events regarding retention of data for legal hold and investigation purposes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


eSignature (Unstructured Data)

An electronic signature indicates that a person adopts the contents of digital data or that the person who claims to have written a message is the one who wrote it. This is most frequently used on unstructured data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain

Letter F

Facility Security

Concerned with the security controls applied at the cloud computing facility that assure a safe and secure operational environment for the physical components of a cloud infrastructure. Examples include restrictions applied to physical access, environmental controls, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)

The international standard for certifying the protection levels of cryptographic modules.

Sources

Key Management in Cloud Services: Understanding Encryption’s Desired Outcomes and Limitations : CSA


Federated IDM

Refers to a new standard based approach to directory services that streamlines and secures user access to networked resources, with the ability to establish trust relationships between various security domains to enable the passing of authentication, authorization, and privacy assertions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Federated Identity Management

The process of asserting an identity across different systems or organizations. This is the key enabler of Single Sign On and also core to managing IAM in cloud computing.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf?_ga=2.225992666.1359049959.1661450515-2107700575.1655484199


Federated Services

Information regarding the trust between an organization’s directories and 3rd party directories.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


FileBased Virtualization

A higher-level view of files that make the file largely independent of how it is presented. For example, a consumer would access mybudget.global without regard to whether it was hosted in a NAS appliance, a SAN or on a physical server.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Firewall

An inter-network connection device that restricts data communication traffic between two connected networks. A firewall may be either an application installed on a general-purpose computer or a dedicated platform (appliance), which forwards or rejects/drops packets on a network. Typically firewalls are used to define zone borders. Firewalls generally have rules restricting which ports are open.

SDP architectures can enforce a ‘deny-all’ firewall policy ensuring that the trusted network enabled by SDP ensures the SDP will not respond to any connections from any clients until they have provided an authentic SPA.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/firewall

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Forensic Analysis

Forensic analysis is concerned with preserving, identifying, extracting, and analyzing potential evidentiary value items relevant to questions of fact regarding a policy or criminal violation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Forensic Tools

Assures that the proper tools are available to authorized parties and processes to facilitate identification and preservation of relevant digital artifacts pertinent to an investigation (e.g., policy violation, e-discovery request or criminal investigation)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Fourth Industrial Revolution

The phrase Fourth Industrial Revolution was first introduced by Klaus Schwab, executive chairman of the World Economic Forum. In the 2015 article in Foreign Affairs, “Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution” was the theme of the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2016 in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland. On October 10, 2016, the Forum announced the opening of its Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in San Francisco. This was also the subject and title of Schwab’s 2016 book. Schwab includes in this fourth era technologies that combine hardware, software, and biology (cyberphysical systems), and emphasizes advances in communication and connectivity. This Fourth Industrial Revolution is, however, fundamentally different. It is characterized by a range of new technologies that are fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, impacting all disciplines, economies and industries, and even challenging ideas about what it means to be human. The resulting shifts and disruptions mean that we live in a time of great promise and great peril. The world has the potential to connect billions of more people to digital networks, dramatically improve the efficiency of organizations and even manage assets in ways that can help regenerate the natural environment, potentially undoing the damage of previous industrial revolutions. (WEFORUM)

Sources

https://www.weforum.org/about/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-by-klaus-schwab


Full

A fully virtualized environment or fabric that includes processor, storage and network capabilities. Can be provided as part of a physical machine or across multiple physical machines.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services

Letter G

GRC

Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) describes the overall management approach through which senior executives direct and control the entire organization, using management information and hierarchical management control structures. Governance activities ensure that critical information reaching the executive team is sufficiently complete, accurate, and timely to enable appropriate management decision making and provide the control mechanisms to ensure that strategies, directions, and instructions from management are carried out systematically and effectively.
Risk management is the set of processes through which management identifies, analyzes, and, where necessary, responds appropriately to risks that might adversely affect realization of the organization’s business objectives. The response to risks typically depends on their perceived gravity, and involves controlling, avoiding, accepting or transferring them to a third party. Whereas organizations routinely manage a wide range of risks (e.g. technological risks, commercial/financial risks, information security risks etc.), external legal and regulatory compliance risks are arguably the key issue in GRC.
Compliance means conforming with stated requirements. At an organizational level, it is achieved through management processes which identify the applicable requirements (defined for example in laws, regulations, contracts, strategies and policies), assess the state of compliance, assess the risks and potential costs of non-compliance against the projected expenses to achieve compliance, and hence prioritize, fund and initiate any corrective actions deemed necessary.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Gateway (SDP Gateway)

Provides authorized users and devices with access to protected processes and services. The gateway can also enact monitoring, logging, and reporting on these connections.

An SDP gateway is an appliance or process that, once a user or device is authorized, allows access to protected processes or services. This gateway can also be used to effectively allow monitoring, logging, and reporting on connections protecting processes or services.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/sdp-architecture-guide-v2/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Geolocation

Provides access to geographical location information associated with the hosting device.

Geolocation can be used as a source of information upon which to make access decisions in an SDP. For example, access to resources from users located in certain countries may be blocked. SDPs may also compare user geolocation with connection attempts to detect credential theft.

Sources

https://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Governance Risk & Compliance

The fundamental issues of governance and enterprise risk management in Cloud Computing concern the identification and implementation of the appropriate organizational structures, processes, and controls to maintain effective information security governance, risk management and compliance.
GRC encompasses, integrates and aligns activities such as corporate governance, enterprise risk management, and corporate compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Components include:
a. compliance management (which assures compliance with all internal information security policies and standards),
b. vendor management (to ensure that service providers and outsourcers adhere to intended and contractual information security policies applying ownership and custody),
c. audit management (to highlight areas for improvement),
d. IT risk management (to ensure that risk of all types is identified, understood, communicated, and either accepted, remediated, transferred or avoided),
e. policy management (to maintain an organizational structure and process that supports the creation, implementation, exception handling, and frameworks that support business requirements), and
f. technical awareness and training (to increase the ability to select and implement effective technical security mechanisms, products, processes, and tools).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Grover’s algorithm

This is an algorithm named after L.K. Grover [Grover96]. The algorithm provides a quadratic speed-up for an exhaustive search on quantum computers. It was designed as a database search algorithm, but can be used to reduce the cryptographic strength of symmetric algorithms by half. 

Sources

[Grover96] Lov K. Grover. A Fast Quantum Mechanical Algorithm for Database Search. STOC 1996.

Letter H

HIDSHIPS

Host Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) can detect actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of a resource. Host Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS) includes taking a preventive measure without direct human intervention.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


HIPS / HIDS

Host Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDS) can detect actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of a resource. Host Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS) includes taking a preventive measure without direct human intervention.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


HMI (Human Machine Interface)

A Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a user interface or dashboard that connects a person to a machine, system, or device. While the term can technically be applied to any screen that allows a user to interact with a device, HMI is most commonly used in the context of an industrial process. In industrial settings, HMIs can be used to visually display data, track production time, trends, and tags, oversee key performance indicators, and monitor machine inputs and outputs.

Sources

https://www.inductiveautomation.com/resources/article/what-is-hmi


HR Data (Employees & Contractors)

Information regarding the employees and contractors of an organization that can be used for various processes including access control, business continuity planning, data governance, and background checks.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Handling / Labeling / Security Policy

This capability manages policies, procedures, and communication associated with labeling, handling, and security of data and objects which contain data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Handwriting (ICR)

Handwriting, or interactive character recognition (ICR) can translate handwritten text into computer input.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Presentation Services


Hardware

Generally, physical items of equipment used in providing infrastructure services (e.g., a server, a router, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Hardware Assisted

Support in a given processor architecture for hypervisor execution (usually through provision of specialized instructions that support switching between guest instances, etc).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Hardware Based Trusted Assets

Assets with trust rooted to hardware (e.g. computers with TPM chip).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Hardware Security Modules (HSMs)

Are hardened, tamper-resistant hardware devices that strengthen encryption practices by generating keys, encrypting and decrypting data, and creating and verifying digital signatures.

Sources

https://cpl.thalesgroup.com/faq/hardware-security-modules/what-general-purpose-hardware-security-module-hsm


Hash Functions

A hash function is a cryptographic function that takes a variable-length of input and produces a fixed-length output. It takes an input text — no matter how long or small it is — but the hash function’s output will always be in a fixed length. Hash functions are used for data integrity and often in combination with digital signatures.

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/hash-function


Hash-based cryptography

This is a sub-area of quantum-safe cryptography which refers to signature schemes whose security are based on the hardness of finding a collision in a hash-function. The signature schemes are usually constructed by combining a one-time signature scheme or few time signature scheme with a Merkle tree. Some examples are the Leighton-Micali scheme [LM], SPHINCS [SPHINCS], and XMSS [XMSS].

Sources

[LM] F.T. Leighton and S. Micali. Large Provably Fast and Secure Digital Signature Schemes based on Secure Hash Functions. US Patent 5,432,852, July 11, 1995.

[SPHINCS] D. J. Bernstein, D. Hopwood, A. Hülsing, T. Lange, R. Niederhagen, L. Papachristodoulou, M. Schneider, P. Schwabe and Z. Wilcox-O’Hearn. SPHINCS: Practical Stateless Hash-Based Signatures. EUROCRYPT 2015.

[XMSS] J. Buchmann, E. Dahmen, and A. Hülsing. XMSS - a Practical Forward Secure Signature Scheme Based on Minimal Security Assumptions. Post-Quantum Cryptography, 2011.


Hashed One-Time Password (HOTP)

This hashed one-time password (hashed OTP) is generated by an algorithm as described by RFC 4226, based on a shared secret. The use of an OTP is required in SPA packets to establish authenticity; other OTP algorithms can be substituted with the overarching goal of providing authenticity of the SPA packet.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/software-defined-perimeter-zero-trust-specification-v2/


Hidden Field Equations (HFE)

This is multivariate public-key scheme (encryption and signature) proposed by J. Patarin [HFE] in 1996. HFEv- [PCG01] is a secure variant of HFE which only permits a signature that can not be utilized to encrypt data.

Sources

[HFE] J. Patarin. Hidden Fields Equations (HFE) and Isomorphisms of Polynomials (IP): Two New Families of Asymmetric Algorithms. EUROCRYPT’96.

[PCG01] J. Patarin, N. Courtois, and L. Goubin. Quartz. 128-bit Long Digital Signatures. CT-RSA’01.


High Availability (HA)

​​High availability means that an IT system, component, or application can operate at a high level, continuously, without intervention, for a given time period. High-availability infrastructure is configured to deliver quality performance and handle different loads and failures with minimal or zero downtime.

Sources

https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/hybrid-work/what-is-high-availability.html


Honey Pot

A real or virtual system configured to attract and detect an intruder by mirroring a real production system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Host

OS supporting the container environment.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Host Based

Virtualized file systems may be presented by a server (e.g., a file server that provides several file shares).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Host Firewall

A software program or function running on a single host that can restrict incoming and outgoing network activity for that host only.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Human Resources Security

This section focuses on the security and risk management perspective for those processes and best practices associated with the interaction that persons (employees, contractors, or any other third-party) have with the organization’s human resources function.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Hybrid Cloud

The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).

Sources

NIST 2011, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/ sp/800-145/final


Hybrid multi-cloud

Refers to an organization that uses multiple public clouds from several vendors to deliver its IT services, in addition to private cloud and traditional on-premises IT. A hybrid multi-cloud environment consists of a combination of private, public and hybrid infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) environments all of which are interconnected and work together to avoid data silos. Many enterprise companies are failing to make their various data repositories and systems ‘talk to each other’ effectively and efficiently, if at all. The result: more data silos that hinder or prevent data movement and sharing. With a modern hybrid multi-cloud architecture in place, you gain access to a single source of truth as it relates to your data. If optimized properly, you can quickly access data that is reliable and accurate. Moreover, data that is unified in one location is accessible whether it resides on-premises or off-premises. 

Sources

IBM, Hybrid cloud: The best of all worlds, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/E97LZYVG


Hypertext Transport Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

A secure network communication method, technically not a protocol in itself, HTTPS is the result of layering the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) on top of the SSL/TLS protocol, thus adding the security capabilities of SSL/TLS to standard HTTP communications.

SDPs require mutual TLS and provides additional user verification not provided by HTTPS.

Sources

https://iapp.org/resources/article/hypertext-transfer-protocol-secure/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Hypervisor Compliance and Governance

The capability of privilege management and monitoring by role and user associated with hypervisor administrators. This also includes the management of virtual networks, servers, and applications in a cloud environment.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain

Letter I

IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)

Founded in 1906 IEC prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as “electrotechnology”. The IEC is one of three global sister organizations (IEC, ISO, ITU) that develop International Standards for the world. Of particular interest to the CSA WG is IEC’s work on the IEC-62443 series of standards addressing Security for industrial automation and control systems. The IEC-62443 series of standards was adopted from the ISA-99 series developed by the ISA (International Society of Automation) providing a framework for mitigating vulnerabilities in Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) associated with Industry 4.0 and Critical Infrastructure.

Sources

https://www.iec.ch/homepage

https://isaeurope.com/how-can-the-62443-series-of-standards-help-your-company/


IED (Intelligent Electronic Device)

An Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is a term used in the electric power industry to describe microprocessor-based controllers of power system equipment, such as circuit breakers, transformers and capacitor banks.

Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_electronic_device


IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things)

A system that connects and manages sensors as well as actuators while integrating them with mainly cloud-based control components that act together to exercise control in the physical world. IIoT connects and integrates industrial control systems with enterprise systems, business processes and analytics. This combination of machines, computers, and people, enable intelligent industrial operations using advanced data analytics for transformational business outcomes. 

IIoT may also refer to the integration of a cloud-based IIoT device management solution with on-premise SCADA systems to enable new business processes and analytics. 

Sources

Industrial internet Consortium (IIC). The Industrial Internet of Things Vocabulary Technical Report V2.2. https://www.iiconsortium.org/ vocab/


IIoT Edge Gateway & Device

An Edge Gateway is an intelligent device in edge computing. It is deployed between networks and fulfills mainly two functions: 

  1. Act as a gateway between the connected industry control system (external) and the local (internal) industry control network. 
  2. Act as local Control Server (IoT Edge runtime) controlling the locally deployed devices (PLCs, sensors, actors, …) 
    The IoT Edge runtime runs on each IoT Edge device and manages all local devices using a large variety of protocols, like WiFi, Ethernet, CAN-Bus, Modbus, BACnet or ZigBee. At the same time, it analyses and uses collected process and sensor data to control the actors and provide feedback into a central, mostly cloud-based, control system.
Sources

https://www.itwissen.info/edge-gateway-EGW-Edge-Gateway.html%20and%20https://brainly.in/question/2436258


IOC (Indicators of Compromise)

IOCs are technical artifacts or observables that suggest an attack is imminent or is currently underway, or that a compromise may have already occurred. Indicators can be used to detect and defend against potential threats. Examples of indicators include the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a suspected command and control server, a suspicious Domain Name System (DNS) domain name, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that references malicious content, a file hash for a malicious executable, or the subject line text of a malicious email message.

Sources

Page 2: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-150.pdf


IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 4 is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP). It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet and other packet-switched networks. IPv4 was the first version deployed for production on SATNET in 1982 and on the ARPANET in January 1983. It still routes most Internet traffic today, despite the ongoing deployment of a successor protocol, IPv6.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


ISA (International Society of Automation)

Founded in 1945 ISA set the standards for those who apply engineering and technology to improve the management, safety, and cybersecurity of modern automation and control systems used across industry and critical infrastructure. Of particular interest to the CSA WG is IEC’s work on the ISA-99 series of standards addressing Security Technologies for Industrial Automation and Control Systems. The ISA-99 series of standards developed by ISA (International Society of Automation) was adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as IEC-62443 providing a framework for mitigating vulnerabilities in Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) associated with Industry 4.0 and Critical Infrastructure.

Sources

https://www.isa.org/about-isa/

https://isaeurope.com/how-can-the-62443-series-of-standards-help-your-company/


IT / OT (Operational Technology) Convergence

IT and OT are primarily seen as different technology areas with different responsibilities. This is due to the different requirements in regards to CIA and safety. 

IT/OT convergence is the end state sought by organizations, where instead of a separation of IT and OT as technology areas, a integrated process and information flow is used.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/it-ot-integration


IT Governance

This capability covers all processes and components oriented to establish decision rights and accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the life cycle for IT services.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


IT Operation

IT operation defines the organizational structure and skill requirements of an IT organization and a set of standard operational management procedures and practices to allow the organization to manage an IT operation and associated infrastructure.

IT Operation capabilities are oriented to align the business and IT Strategies, management of the project and technological portfolios, and ensure architecture governance throughout IT.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


IT Risk Management

Information risk management is the act of aligning exposure to risk and capability of managing it with the risk tolerance of the data owner. It is the primary means of decision support for information technology resources designed to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information assets. Ensures that risk of all types are identified, understood, communicated, and either accepted, remediated, transferred or avoided. IT Risk Management can look at the output of Compliance Management activities to assist the organization in evaluating the overall security posture and aligning with the defined risk objectives.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


ITOS

Information Technology Operations & Support (ITOS)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Identity (ID)

The set of attribute values (i.e., characteristics) by which an entity is recognizable and that, within the scope of an identity manager’s responsibility, is sufficient to distinguish that entity from any other entity.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/identity


Identity Management

Ensure that credible identities can be used for authentication, entitlement, and access management by oversight of the full lifecycle of an identity.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Identity Provider (IdP)

A trusted entity that issues or registers subscriber authenticators and issues electronic credentials to subscribers. A cloud service provider may be an independent third party or issue credentials for its own use.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/identity_provider


Identity Provisioning

The creation, maintenance and deactivation of user objects as they exist in one or more systems, directories or applications, in response to automated or interactive business processes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Identity Verification

The process of identifying living individuals by using their physiological and behavioral characteristics, or derived documents issued by an authority.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Identity and Access Management (IAM)

The set of technology, policies, and processes that are used to manage access to resources.

SDPs typically rely on an organization’s existing identity and access management system (and/or external CASB) for user authentication and user attributes (such as role or group membership).

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-203.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Image Management

Processes and procedures for managing the collection of software images within an infrastructure.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Incident

An issue that harms the operation of network and information systems core services.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Incident Handling

The corrective action to address an issue/incidence in violation of security practices and recommended practices. 

Sources

NIST.SP800-61r2: Computer Security Incident Handling Guide


Incident Impact

A measure of the extent of damage caused by an incident before it can be resolved.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Incident Management

Process for managing an incident from detection through review and resolution.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Incident Reporting

The procedure by which the reporting party (cloud provider or cloud operator) shall submit to a national competent authority a report with information on the incident on an ad-hoc basis.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Incident Response Plan

A clear set of instructions that helps an organization prepare, detect, analyze and recover from an incident.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Incident Root Cause

The reason (ultimate root cause) that caused the incident. (A root cause analysis could identify multiple “causes and effects” but will have a single root cause).

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Independent Audits

Independent audits effectively prevent you from ‘fooling yourself.’ It ensures an unbiased review of the current business state of affairs related to security and compliance.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Independent Risk Management

Risk Assessments performed by a third-party to assess the maturity of the organization’s controls from a reference framework perspective (i.e., COBIT, ISO27001), regulatory perspective (i.e., SOX, PCI), this type of assessment could also include Security Testing (Black-Box, White-Box, Pen-Testing).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Industrial Control Plane

Carries the control information in the network. In industrial networks, control-plane activity consists of any engineering activity related to the maintenance life cycle of the industrial controllers, including any read/change of controller state, control-logic, configuration settings, or firmware. In industrial networks, industrial controllers (e.g. PLCs, RTUs, DCS) are the “brains” responsible for the continuous execution of the entire industrial process lifecycle. These controllers are specialized computers, provided by vendors like Rockwell Automation, Siemens, GE, Schneider Electric and others. These industrial solid-state computers monitor inputs and outputs, and make logic-based decisions. The control plane uses protocols for communicating activities (e.g. firmware download/ upload, configuration updates, code and logic changes) and are mostly proprietary and undocumented. Each vendor uses their own unique implementation of the IEC-61131 standard for programmable controllers. Therefore, they vary based on the vendor and device models. Usually, these control-plane protocols are unnamed because of the fact they were meant to be used internally only via the vendor’s engineering software.

Sources

Pages 2, 3 and 7 from: https://info.indegy.com/wp-5-things-industrial-control-planety?submissionGuid=84f66e5e-db70-419c-817f-b678e5ed08f4


Industrial Control Systems (ICS)

General term that encompasses several types of control systems, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS), and other control system configurations such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures. An ICS consists of combinations of control components (e.g., electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) that act together to achieve an industrial objective (e.g., manufacturing, transportation of matter or energy).

See also: Process Control System (PSC)

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/industrial_control_system


Industrial Data Plane

Sometimes referred to as the user plane, Industrial Data Plane carries the user-data traffic. In industrial networks, the data-plane is used by the HMI and SCADA applications to communicate process parameters and physical measurements between the human operator and the industrial equipment (I/Os). The Data Plane uses protocols like Modbus, PROFINET and DNP3 which are used by HMI/ SCADA applications to communicate physical measurements and process parameters (e.g. current temperature, current pressure, valve status, etc.). These protocols are typically well documented and standardized.

Sources

Pages 2 and 6 from: https://info.indegy.com/wp-5-things-industrial-control-planety?submissionGuid=84f66e5e-db70-419c-817f-b678e5ed08f4


Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is the subset of the fourth industrial revolution that concerns industry. The fourth industrial revolution encompasses areas that are not normally classified as industry, such as smart cities for instance. 
Although the terms “industry 4.0” and “fourth industrial revolution” are often used interchangeably, “industry 4.0” factories have machines which are augmented with wireless connectivity and sensors, connected to a system that can visualize the entire production line and make decisions on its own. 
In essence, industry 4.0 is the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes which include cyber-physical systems (CPS), the internet of things (IoT), industrial internet of things (IIOT), cloud computing, cognitive computing, and artificial intelligence. 
The concept includes:

  • Smart manufacturing
  • Smart factory
  • Lights out (manufacturing) also known as dark factories
  • Industrial internet of things also called internet of things for manufacturing
Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry_4.0


Industry 4.0 Technologies

Below are some of the technologies that will transform manufacturing and the supply chain allowing Industry 4.0 to realize its full potential: “Big Data and Analytics, Autonomous Robots , Simulation, Horizontal and Vertical System Integration, The Industrial, Internet of Things, Cybersecurity, The Cloud, Additive Manufacturing, Augmented Reality”BCG, “Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Internet of Things, Autonomous Vehicles, 3-D Printing, Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Materials Science, Energy Storage, Quantum Computing” (WEFORUM)

Sources

https://www.bcg.com/capabilities/operations/embracing-industry-4.0-rediscovering-growth.aspx

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/


InfoSec Management

The main objective of Information Security Management is to implement the appropriate measurements to minimize or eliminate the impact that security-related threats and vulnerabilities might have on an organization. Measurements include Capability Maturity Models (which identify stages of development of an organization from an immature state through several levels of maturity as the organization gains experience and knowledge), Capability Mapping Models (which describe what a business does to reach its objectives and promotes a strong relationship between the business model and the technical infrastructure that supports the business requirements resulting in a view that can be understood by both the business and IT), Roadmaps in the form of security architectures (which provide a guideline to be followed by individual projects serving individual business initiatives), and Risk Portfolios (where identified risks are registered, monitored, and reported). Dashboards for security management and risk management are used to measure and report the effectiveness of decisions and help the organization make new decisions that will maintain and improve that effectiveness. Analysis and plans for remediating residual risks are also part of the overall risk management framework.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Information Disclosure

The breach of privacy or leak of information to unauthorized persons or to the public domain. In cloud testing information disclosure often takes the form of leak of data from misconfigured public cloud data stores.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Information Leakage Metadata

Metadata that is attached to critical pieces of information to mark it for detection by data leakage prevention tools.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Information Security Policies

Broad statements of management intent that guide the information security operations of an organization. Policies are implemented by standards and procedures and compliance can be verified through audits.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Information Services

Information Services refers to the storage of data, usually in databases, but sometimes just in files.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Information System Regulatory Mapping

The main focus here is to ensure that all regulatory requirements are identified and that the business’s compliance effort takes them into account.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS)

ITOS outlines all the necessary services an IT organization will have to support its business needs. ITOS is the IT Department. It is the help desk that takes the call when a problem is found. It is the teams that coordinate changes and roll them out in the middle of the night. It is the planning and process that keep the systems going even in the event of a disaster.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Information Technology Resiliency

The attributes of an information technology entity and its services to continue to provide adequate services when events occur (power interruption, loss of network links, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Information-theoretic secure

A cryptosystem is information-theoretically secure if its security derives purely from information theory. That is, the cryptosystem cannot be breached even when the adversary has unlimited computing power. Examples of information-theoretically secure cryptosystems include the classical one-time pad and Quantum-Key Distribution (QKD).

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Infrastructure

A shared, evolving, open, standardized, and heterogeneous installed base and as all of the people, processes, procedures, tools, facilities, and technology which supports the creation, use, transport, storage, and destruction of information (also referred to as information infrastructure).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Infrastructure Layer

At the lowest layer in the SDN reference model, the infrastructure layer consists of switching devices (e.g., switches, routers, etc.), which are interconnected to formulate a single network.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/68347622


Infrastructure Protection Services

Infrastructure Protection Services secure Server, Endpoint, Network, and Application layers. This discipline uses a traditional defense in depth approach to ensure containers and pipes of data are healthy. The controls of Infrastructure Protection Services are usually considered as preventive technical controls such as Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems ( IDS/IPS), Firewall, Anti-Malware, White/Black Listing, and more. They are relatively cost-effective in defending against the majority of traditional or non-advanced attacks.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Infrastructure Services

Not to be confused with Infrastructure as a Service, Infrastructure Services can be visualized as the foundational capabilities provided by the rows of computers, network cables, power supplies, cooling vents, and fire suppression pipes you will see inside any standard data center. These capabilities include virtualization, compute, storage and network; facilities and environmentals; and physical security and access restrictions. Infrastructure Services may also reference Facilities, Hardware, Network and Virtual Environments. Infrastructure Services are the layered basic core capabilities that support higher-level capabilities in other architecture areas. These levels include virtual machines, applications, databases, as well as networking and the physical hardware and facilities..

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Offers access to a resource pool of fundamental6 computing infrastructure, such as compute, network, or storage.

Sources

Disaster Recovery as a Service : CSA


Initiating Host (IH)

The host that initiates communication to the controller and to the AHs.

An initiating host is a trusted node in an SDP. The initiating host (IH) is the host that initiates communication to the controller and to the AHs. It initiates a two-way encrypted connection to authorized accepting hosts.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Initiating Host (IH) Session

The period of time that a particular IH is connected to a controller.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Initiating Host (IH) Session ID

A 256-bit randomized arbitrary number used once (NONCE) managed by the SDP controller and used to refer to a particular IH session.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Input Validation

Input validation examines the user’s input and determines what input is acceptable input to the system. This process helps with data quality as well as allows malicious input from being injected into the system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Integrated Circuit Chip (ICC)

The ICC is part of a smart card and is embedded into the physical plastic. Smart cards are often used in two-factor authentication solutions where the user enters a pin which is used by an operating system on the smart card to release evidence of identity such as a digital certificate or to allow a private key to sign an identity token which is sent to an enforcement agent that determines if the identity is valid.

Sources

https://ea.cloudsecurityalliance.org/display.php?id=data_sec6036&_ga=2.215953620.277413644.1656439470-2107700575.1655484199


Integration Middleware

Integration Middleware is a set of tools like service buses and message queues that allow applications to exchange information without talking directly. Security concerns for these services include making sure the messages being exchanged are not read or tampered with during delivery, and reliable sources are only sending them.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA)

Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA) is the accredited remote attestation methods which formulates the integrity measurement process and integrity reporting protocol.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5557396


Intellectual Property

A term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized-and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to various intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and trade secrets in some jurisdictions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Intellectual Property Protection

The activity (e.g. applying process or technical control) of preventing misuse and improper disclosure of intellectual property.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Inter-Mediation

An API Facade is a layer or gateway that sits between the microservices and the API exposed to external services. The facade creates a buffer or layer between the interface exposed to apps and app developers and the complex services. You may have several API’s into different microservices, the facade abstracts the complexity with a simple singular interface.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST)

Software component deployed with an application that assesses application behavior and detects presence of vulnerabilities on an application being exercised in realistic testing scenarios.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Internal

It focuses on attacks that could be launched by an insider. In contrast to a remote attacker, this attacker may have some form of authorized access and already has access to the internal network. The insider can also have more knowledge of the location of valuable data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Internal (VNIC)

A VNIC is a virtualized network interface that presents the same media access control (MAC) interface that an actual interface would provide.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Internal Audits

Provides a cross-checking mechanism within the organization. In larger organizations, there is likely to be some level of independence as well.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Internal Infrastructure

The internal infrastructure services are mainly concerned with the physical assets used by the cloud service provider to support the virtualized services actually seen by cloud users. In many ways, these services are the lowest-level and least visible to the end cloud user though they are the foundation that underlies reliable and secure operation of the cloud service. For instance, without good facility security, there is no need for an adversary to mount a network attack on a cloud service as it is easier to just walk into the facility and unplug a server or network connection.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Internal Investigations

Internal investigations are concerned with determining the factual truth and implications of a policy or criminal investigation. This process includes fraud detection, prevention, and forensic investigation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Internal SLAs

Service level agreements within an organization that codify the specific services to be delivered and the performance criteria governing that delivery.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)

Provide(s) interoperable, high quality, cryptographically-based security for IPv4 and IPv6. The set of security services offered includes access control, connectionless integrity, data origin authentication, detection and rejection of replays (a form of partial sequence integrity), confidentiality (via encryption), and limited traffic flow confidentiality.

SDPs provide two-way secure connections over IPSec for the upper network layers.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/ip_security

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Intrusion Management

The process of using pattern recognition to detect statistically unusual events, prevent or detect intrusion attempts, and manage the incidents.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Inventory Control

To provide management control and accountability over the organization’s physical and digital assets. Cloud and virtualization can create a challenge in terms of attempting to inventory virtual machines in the way physical machines have traditionally been tracked.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Investment Budgeting

The planning process used to determine whether an organization’s long term investments such as new infrastructure, replacement of existing services and infrastructure, new data centers, new products or services, research, application development, security, and project deployment are worth pursuing. Usually, a cost-benefit analysis is used as part of the investment budgeting process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


IoT Search Engine

Internet of Things (IoT) search engine which enables you to find physical devices with embedded computing capabilities - such as webcams, home appliances, medical devices - that are connected to and can exchange data over the Internet. Two examples of IoT search engines are Thingful (https://www.thingulf.com) and Shodan (https://www.shodan.io).

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Isogeny

This is a particular type of mapping between two elliptic curves.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Isogeny-based cryptography

This is a sub-area of quantum-safe cryptography that constructs publickey schemes whose security is dependent on the difficulty of recovering an unknown isogeny between a pair of elliptic curves. An example is the scheme of D. Jao and L. De Feo [JF].

Sources

[JF] D. Jao and L. De Feo. Towards Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems from Supersingular Elliptic Curve Isogenies, Post-Quantum Cryptography 2011.

Letter J

Java Message Service (JMS)

The Java messaging service (JMS) is a middlewareoriented messaging technology working according to the publish/ subscribe principle.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1648916


Job Aid Guidelines

A job aid (aka Standard Operating Procedures or Playbooks) stores information or instruction external to a user and guides them to perform a task correctly. It is used during the actual performance when the user needs to know the information or procedure. It can be consulted quickly when needed and provides specific, concise information to the user. It reduces the need for individuals to remember so much information and is an efficient method to reduce problems associated with relying strictly on recall to perform in certain situations.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Job Descriptions

Clear definitions of the responsibilities of a job help to identify the data access requirements of people with that job to ensure that they only have the minimum required access.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Just-In-Time (JIT) access

Just-in-time (JIT) access is the capability to provide access only when needed. In these scenarios, the user requests access and is timeboxed and at the end of the time the access is removed. JIT access can be manually or automatically approved through policy actions.

Sources

Recommendations for Adopting a Cloud-Native Key Management Service : CSA

Letter K

Keep-Alive Message

The keep-alive message is sent by the initiating host (IH), accepting host (AH) or controller to indicate that it is still active.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf?_ga=2.222448153.38415640.1663010462-1480344219.1663010462


Kernel

Primary (of three) components of an operating system

Sources

https://www.isaca.org/resources/glossary#glossk


Key Management

Key management covers the entire lifecycle of keys beginning to end including generation, communication and distribution, storage, entry, and installation, checking the validity, usage, changing the active key, archiving, destruction, an audit of key operations and usage, key backup and recovery, and emergency reserve keys.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Key Management Interoperability Protocol (KMIP)

The KMIP establishes a single, comprehensive protocol for communication between enterprise key management servers and cryptographic clients. It addresses the critical need for a comprehensive key management protocol built into the information infrastructure so that enterprises can deploy effective unified key management for all their encryption, certificate-based device authentication, digital signature, and other cryptographic capabilities.

Sources

http://xml.coverpages.org/KMIP/KMIP-WhitePaper.pdf


Key Management System (KMS)

The management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem for data control and security with cloud services. The KMS can be native to a cloud platform, external, self-operated, or other cloud service.

Sources

Key Management in Cloud Services: Understanding Encryption’s Desired Outcomes and Limitations : CSA


Key Risk Indicators

Identifies what the key risks are from a management or executive level. These are the key risk factors that can affect a specific business.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)

A message authentication code that uses a cryptographic key in conjunction with a hash function.
It is an integral element of the initial packet that initiates connections into the SDP.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.198-1.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Keyloggers

A reconnaissance tool–with keylogging and screen capture functionality–used for information gathering on compromised systems.

Sources

https://attack.mitre.org/software/


Keystroke / Session Logging

Methodologies for capturing a detailed record of interactions with an entity (either at the level of individual keystrokes or interactions with the entity)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Kill Chain for Industrial Control Systems

In 2011, Lockheed Martin analysts Eric M. Hutchins, Michael J. Cloppert and Rohan M. Amin created the Cyber Kill Chain™ to help the decision-making process for better detecting and responding to adversary intrusions. This model was adapted from the concept of military kill chains and has been a highly successful and widely popular model for defenders in IT and enterprise networks. This model is not directly applicable to the nature of ICS-custom cyber attacks, but it serves as a great foundation and concept on which to build. 

The ICS Kill Chain has 2 stages: 

  • Stage 1 - Cyber Intrusion Preparation and Execution
    1. Preparation
    2. Cyber Intrusion 3. Management and Enablement
  • Stage 2 - Attack Development and Execution
    1. Attack Development and Tuning
    2. Validation and
    3. The Actual Attack
Sources

https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/ICS/industrial-control-system-cyber-kill-chain-36297


Knowledge Base

A repository of knowledge about the organization’s infrastructure and operations to enable the Security Operations Center to respond to events efficiently.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Knowledge Management

The process of organizing information and providing search capabilities such that problems and incidents can be handled quickly by referring to experience. In the Information domain, this represents the actual knowledge stored in the knowledge base regarding security FAQs, best practices, and job aids.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Knowledge Repository

The Knowledge Repository contains information about known patterns, processes, and procedures

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Kubernetes

An open-source container-orchestration system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications across multiple hosts.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA

Letter L

LDAP Repositories

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Repositories organize users and groups of users into a hierarchical organizational structure.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


LDM

Logical Device Manager (LDM). A Microsoft Windows capability similar in function to LVM.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


LUN

Acronym for the SCSI protocol’s Logical Unit Number (LUN) and commonly used as a term for the block device presented to a host via a SAN.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


LVM

Logical Volume Management (LVM). Allows grouping of several physical disks into a single logical volume as viewed by the host

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Lamport one-time signature scheme

This is the scheme that inspired hash-based signature scheme. The technique proposed by L. Lamport [LamportRR] requires a one-way function and can be used to sign, at most, one message. 

Sources

[LamportRR] L. Lamport. Constructing Digital Signatures from a One Way Function. Technical Report SRICSL-98, SRI International Computer Science Laboratory, 1979.


Lateral Movement

Lateral action from a compromised internal host to strengthen the attacker foothold inside the organizational network, to control additional machines, and to eventually control strategic assets.

Sources

Cyber Weapons Report 2016, LightCyber, Ramat Gan, Israel, 2016, 14pp. http://lightcyber.com/cyber-weapons-report-network-traffic-analytics-revealsattacker-tools/ [accessed 5/11/17].


Lattice-based cryptography

This is a sub-area of quantum-safe cryptography and includes cryptographic schemes whose security is related to the Closest Vector Problem (CVP), the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem or the Shortest Vector Problem (SVP). 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Learning with Errors (LWE) problem

This is a hard problem used in lattice-based cryptography. The solution to the problem, an issue introduced by O. Regev [Reg05], requires the recovery of a noisy linear equations system.

Sources

[Reg05] O. Regev. On Lattices, Learning with Errors, Random Linear Codes, and Cryptography. STOC 2005.


Life Cycle Management

Policies, processes, and procedures for managing the lifecycle of data from creation through use, archiving and eventual destruction

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Lightweight Directory Access Protocols (LDAP)

A networking protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.

Sources

https://csguide.cs.princeton.edu/email/setup/ldap


Loadable Kernel Module (LKM)

Loadable Kernel Modules (LKMs) are pieces of code that can be loaded and unloaded into the kernel upon demand. They extend the functionality of the kernel without the need to reboot the system. For example, one type of module is the device driver, which allows the kernel to access hardware connected to the system.

Sources

https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1547/006/


Local

A virtual machine or application sandbox that is installed and managed on the endpoint but isolated from the rest of the endpoint. Management can be centralized but the virtual machine runs locally on the endpoint device (tablet, pc, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Location Services

Geolocation information regarding the physical location of assets, resources, facilities, people.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services

Letter M

MES (Manufacturing Execution System)

A system that uses network computing to automate production control and process automation. By downloading recipes and work schedules, and uploading production results, a MES bridges the gap between business and plant-floor or process-control systems. NIST Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) solutions that ensure quality and efficiency are built into the manufacturing process and are proactively and systematically enforced. Manufacturing Execution Systems connect multiple plants, sites, vendors’ live production information, and integrate easily with equipment, controllers and enterprise business applications. The result is complete visibility, control and manufacturing optimization of production and processes across the enterprise. (SIEMENS)

Sources

NIST:https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-82r2.pdf
Page B 10 SIEMENS: https://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/global/en/ourstory/glossary/manufacturing-execution-systems-mes/38072


MITRE ATT&CK for ICS Matrix™

A knowledge base useful for describing the actions an adversary may take while operating within an ICS network. The knowledge base can be used to better characterize and describe post-compromise adversary behavior. 

An overview of the tactics and techniques described in the ATT&CK for ICS knowledge base. It visually aligns individual techniques under the tactics in which they can be applied.

Sources

https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Main_Page


MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport)

A Client-Server publish/subscribe messaging transport protocol. It is lightweight, open, simple, and designed to be easy to implement. These characteristics make it ideal for use in many situations, including constrained environments such as communication in Machine to Machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) contexts where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. The protocol runs over TCP/IP, or over other network protocols that provide ordered, lossless, bidirectional connections.

Sources

Abstract at bottom, Page 1: https://docs.oasis-open.org/mqtt/mqtt/v5.0/mqtt-v5.0.pdf


MTUs (Master Terminal Unit or SCADA Server)

A controller that also acts as a server that hosts the control software which communicates with lower-level control devices, such as Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), over an ICS network. In a SCADA system, this is often called a SCADA server, MTU, or supervisory controller.

Sources

NIST, page B-3: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-82r2.pdf


Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks

An attack where the adversary positions himself in between the user and the system so that he can intercept and alter data traveling between them.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/mitm


Managed Security Services

An outsourced arrangement to provide some or all part of the security operations capabilities for an organization.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Mandatory Access Control (MAC)

A means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as represented by a security label) of the information contained in the objects and the formal authorization (i.e., clearance, formal access approvals, and need-to-know) of subjects to access information of such sensitivity.

Sources

https://www.dni.gov/files/NCSC/documents/nittf/CNSSI-4009_National_Information_Assurance.pdf


Manual Security Code Review

Human process of reading source code to identify security issues.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Market Threat Intelligence

Cyber Intelligence information collected by distributed IDS sensors and analyzed by security firms. Also, this capability can consolidate Threat Intelligence from industry peers (i.e., HITRUST, Commercial branches from NSA, etc.)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Maturity Mode

Tracking the organization’s capabilities against industry best practices, benchmarking, and maturity to show progress over time.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Maturity Model

Identify the stages of development of an organization from an immature state through several maturity levels as the organization gains experience and knowledge. COBIT defines a Capability Maturity Model with six levels of maturity: non-existent, initial, repeatable, defined, managed, and optimized.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


McEliece encryption scheme

This is a code-based public-key encryption scheme proposed by R.-J. McEliece in 1978 [McE78]. 

Sources

[McE78] R.-J. McEliece. A Public-Key System Based on Algebraic Coding Theory, pages 114—116. Jet Propulsion Lab, 1978. DSN Progress Report 44.


Media Access Control (MAC) address

A hardware address that uniquely identifies each component of an IEEE 802-based network. On networks that do not conform to the IEEE 802 standards but do conform to the OSI Reference Model, the node address is called the Data Link Control (DLC) address. (NIST)

A Media Access Control (MAC) address is the unique hardware address of an Ethernet network interface card (NIC), typically “burned in” at the factory. MAC addresses may be changed in software.

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/media-access-control


Media Lockdown

Also referred to as removable media lockdown, a control to block user access to writable devices such as USB Flash memory sticks and CD/DVD-RW drives to prevent data leak.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Medical Devices

Medical devices in the context of this CSA Enterprise Architecture mean devices with connectivity to networks or the ability to download data so that information can be exchanged with the device, such as a monitoring device, worn by a patient.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Merkle Tree Signature Scheme

This is a typical example of a hash-based signature proposed by R. Merkle. The scheme’s principle is to use a Merkle tree whose leaves are the public/private keys of a one-time signature. This allows the Lamport one-time signature scheme (or other one-time or few-time signature schemes) to be extended for signing more than one message. The number of messages that can be signed depends on the height of the Merkle tree. The signature scheme requires a collision-resistant hash-function or a pre-image-resistant hash-function. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Merkle tree

This a data structure named after R. Merkle [Merkle89] that is also known as a hash tree. It is a binary tree whose leaves are blocks of data which are hashed and then combined with other blocks through hashing. This hashing combination is repeated until all blocks have been combined into a single hash. 

Sources

[Merkle89] R. Merkle. A Certified Digital Signature. CRYPTO ’89.


Meta Data Control

Controlling what types of metadata accompany the underlying data (e.g., the record of changes to a document maintained as metadata by a word processing application should not be released with the document)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Meta Directory Services

Provides for the flow of one or more directory services and databases to import or maintain synchronization of those data sources.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Micro-segmentation

Is the technique of creating secure zones within a data center and cloud deployments that allow the organization to separate and secure each workload. This makes network security more granular and effective. These secure zones are created based on business services, and rules are defined to secure information workflow.

Sources

https://www.techtarget.com/searchnetworking/definition/microsegmentation


Microservice Architectural Style

A microservices architecture usually refers to an application that has been structured to use basic elements called microservices, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechanisms, often an HTTP resource API. These services are built around business capabilities and independently deployable by fully automated deployment machinery. There is a bare minimum of centralized management of these services, which may be written in different programming languages and use different data storage technologies.

Sources

Cloud Security Alliance. _Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices Integrating Application Container Security Considerations into the Engineering of Trustworthy Secure Systems _(Cloud Security Alliance: 2019) 42


Microservices

A microservice is a basic element that results from the architectural decomposition of an application’s components into loosely coupled patterns consisting of self-contained services that communicate with each other using a standard communications protocol and a set of well-defined APIs, independent of any vendor, product, or technology. Microservices are built around capabilities as opposed to services, build on SOA, and are implemented using Agile techniques. Microservices are typically deployed inside application containers.

Sources

NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-180 (Draft), NIST Definition of Microservices, Application Containers and System Virtual Machines, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 2016, 12pp. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/800-180/sp800-180_draft.pdf


Microservices Architecture

A microservices architecture usually refers to an application that has been structured to use basic elements called microservices, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechanisms, often an HTTP resource API. These services are built around business capabilities and independently deployable by fully automated deployment machinery. There is a bare minimum of centralized management of these services, which may be written in different programming languages and use different data storage technologies

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Microservices Systems Software Development

The process of breaking down an application into components (microservices) via code extraction or rewrite, into a microservices architecture of self-contained services that achieve a business objective.

Sources

Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices : CSA


Middleware Authentication

Authentication of applications/services/components that users never, ever see directly.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Misconfiguration

An incorrect or suboptimal configuration of an information system or system component that may lead to vulnerabilities.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/misconfiguration


Mobile Device Management

Mobile device management enables an enterprise to manage mobile endpoints’ security similar to the way that desktops are managed. The security features include locking or wiping the device if compromised, pushing software updates to the device, and requiring certain security features to be enabled before allowing a device to connect to the corporate network.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Mobile Device Virtualization

Mobile Device Virtualization allows the organization to test compatibility with new technologies for different mobile devices.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Mobile Devices

Mobile devices include smartphones, PDAs and tablets.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Modular Construction

Some monolithic applications may be built from a large number of components and libraries that may have been supplied by different vendors and some components (such as database) may also be distributed across the network.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/best-practices-in-implementing-a-secure-microservices-architecture/

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture : CSA


Monolith

The earliest architecture for application systems is the “monolith” in which the entire application is designed to run as a single process and is hosted on a resource-intensive computing platform called the “server.” Although the application may be structured as different modules, a change in any module requires the recompilation and redeployment of the entire application. Communication between the modules is carried out by local procedure/function calls.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/best-practices-in-implementing-a-secure-microservices-architecture/

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture : CSA


Multi Factor Authentication

A form of authentication that relies on two or more ‘factors’ where a factor is ‘something you have’ such as a smartcard, ‘something you know’ such as a password or pin, and ‘something you are’ such as a physical fingerprint or a behavioral keyboard cadence.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Multi-factor Authentication (MFA)

Authentication using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something you know (e.g. password/personal identification number (PIN)); (ii) something you have (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something you are (e.g., biometric).

SDP access policies should support MFA for user authentication. There are several protocols such as UAF and U2F used for multi-factor authentication. SDPs can leverage U2F or UAF for user or device authentication without additional CA requirements, separate from the CA utilized for mutual TLS.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/multi_factor_authentication

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

An Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)-specified framework that provides for the efficient designation, routing, forwarding, and switching of traffic flows through the network. MPLS performs the following functions: specifies mechanisms to manage traffic flows of various granularities, remains independent of the Layer-2 and Layber-3 protocols, provides a means to map IP addresses to simple, fixed-length labels used by different packet-forwarding and packet-switching technologies, interfaces to existing routing protocols, and supports the IP, ATM, and frame-relay Layer-2 protocols.

SDP architectures define several connection types and each of these connections needs to be secure from layer 2 or 3 up to layer 7; MPLS is one such mechanism.

Sources

http://tele1.dee.fct.unl.pt/rit1_2020_2021/pages/IEC_MPLS.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Multivariate Public-Key Cryptography (MPQC)

This refers to public-key multivariate cryptosystems. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) problem

This is a restriction of the PoSSo problem to quadratic polynomials. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Multivariate-based cryptography

This is a sub-area of quantum-safe cryptography which includes cryptographic schemes whose security is related to PoSSo problem or Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) problems. This problem is also called an MQ problem when the non-linear equations are of degree (at most 2) and remains NP-hard. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Mutual Transport Layer Security (mTLS)

An approach where each microservice can identify who it talks to, in addition to achieving confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data. Each microservice in the deployment has to carry a public/private key pair and uses that key pair to authenticate to the recipient microservices via mTLS.

Sources

https://cheatsheetseries.owasp.org/cheatsheets/Microservices_security.html#mutual-transport-layer-security


Mux ID

A 64-bit used to multiplex connections across a single IH-AH tunnel in dynamic tunnel mode. The most significant 32 bits form a unique value assigned by the controller for each remote Service. It is referred to as the service ID of the MID. The least significant 32 bits form a value maintained by the IH and the AH to differentiate among different TCP connections for a specific remote service. This is referred to as the session ID of the MID.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf

Letter N

NIPS / NIDS

Network Intrusion Prevention includes taking a preventive measure without direct human intervention. Network Intrusion Detection is the capability to detect actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of a resource over the network.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


NIPS Events

Network Intrusion Prevention Services (NIPS) events regarding the source and destination of the intrusion attempt.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


NTRU

This is a patented and open-sourced lattice-based cryptosystem used to encrypt and decrypt data. It was developed by J. Hoffstein, J. Pipher, and J. H. Silverman [HPS98]. The signature scheme pqNTRUsign is based on the same underlying hard problem as NTRU and is also quantum-resistant. 

Sources

[HPS98] J. Hoffstein, J. Pipher, and J. H. Silverman. NTRU: A Ring-Based Public Key Cryptosystem. ANTS-998.


Network

See Networks

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Network (Data in Transit)

See Data in Transit Encryption (DLP in this case)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Network Access Control (NAC)

A method of bolstering the security of a private or “on-premise” network by restricting the availability of network resources to endpoint devices that comply with a defined security policy. NACs address layer 3 access control and connectivity.

SDPs bolster the security of a private or “on-premise” network by securing layer 2 through 7 connectivity.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-41r1.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Network Address Space

The ability to define network addresses within a virtual workspace to create a virtual network segment separate from that of the physical host machine.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Network Address Translation (NAT)

A function by which internet protocol addresses within a packet are replaced with different IP addresses. This function is most commonly performed by either routers or firewalls. It enables private IP networks that use unregistered IP addresses to connect to the internet. NAT operates on a router, usually connecting two networks together, and translates the private (not globally unique) addresses in the internal network into legal addresses before packets are forwarded to another network.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/network_address_translation


Network Authentication

Authentication services provide methods/protocols for users (or devices) to logon to a network and other benefits (e.g., SSO).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Network Based

Virtualization at the filesystem level (i.e., the host is presented with a virtual filesystem).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Network Events

Events generated by various network elements within the infrastructure including network health, KPIs, and threshold alarms.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Network Security

Consists of security services that allocate network access, distribute, monitor, and protect network services

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Network Segmentation

Splitting a network into sub-networks, for example, by creating separate areas on the network which are protected by firewalls configured to reject unnecessary traffic. Network segmentation minimizes the harm of malware and other threats by isolating it to a limited part of the network.

SDPs provide network segmentation policies using gateways and in addition the segments behind the gateways will block connections and not respond to any requests from clients until they have provided an authentic SDP.

Sources

https://www.nist.gov/itl/smallbusinesscyber/cybersecurity-basics/glossary

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Network Services

Concerned with managing the security risks posed by the network environment. Controls at this level include proper network segmentation (for example, assets used by organization A are not visible to organization B) and provision of basic network services such as an accurate and traceable time standard.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Network Virtualization

Concerned with providing appropriate virtual network services. Controls at this level assure that the virtual network implements proper isolation (see ‘segmentation’ above), required connectivity and proper access controls.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Networks

Compliance testing against a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain subnetworks.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Next Generation Firewall (NGFW)

Deep-packet inspection firewalls that move beyond port/protocol inspection and blocking to add application-level inspection, intrusion prevention, and bringing intelligence from outside the firewall. An NGFW should not be confused with a stand-alone network intrusion prevention system (IPS), which includes a commodity or non enterprise firewall, or a firewall and IPS in the same appliance that are not closely integrated.

SDPs can sit behind the NGFWs and look for specific SPA packets prior to allowing authorized connections to services behind the firewall; thus, explicitly allowing authorized connections.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/next-generation-firewalls-ngfws

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Nodes

Point at which terminals are given access to a network.

Sources

https://www.isaca.org/resources/glossary#glossn


Noise Source

A system the produces non-deterministic random numbers. The noise source contains the non-deterministic, entropy-producing activity [NIST]. 

Sources

[NIST] M. S. Turan, E. Barker, J. Kelsey, K. A. McKay, M. L. Baish and M. Boyle. Recommendation for the Entropy Sources Used for Random Bit Generation (Second DRAFT). NIST Special Publication 800-90B, 2016.


Non-Person Entity (NPE)

An entity with a digital identity that acts in cyberspace, but is not a human actor. This can include organizations, hardware devices, software applications, and information artifacts.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/non_person_entity


Non-deterministic Polynomial time (NP)

This is a complexity class of decision problems in which affirmations (occurrences where the answer is “yes”) can be verified in deterministic polynomial-time.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Non-deterministic Polynomial-time Hardness (NP-Hard)

Computational problems can be classified in function of their (intrinsic) hardnesses. NP-hard problems are at least as hard as the hardest problem in Non-deterministic Polynomial time (NP). An efficient algorithm for solving any NP-hard problem would lead to an efficient algorithm for all problems in NP. A fundamental assumption of quantum-resistant cryptography is that no NP-hard problem can be solved in deterministic polynomial-time in the classical and quantum setting. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


NonProduction Data

For testing and development purposes in non-production environments, test data should be generated to not host live data in environments with fewer controls. When live data must be used, it should be masked or tokenized to de-identify the personal information it contains.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Nonce

A limited or single-use, typically small value used as an initialization, seed or other special-purpose value.

Sources

https://www.isaca.org/resources/glossary#glossz

Letter O

OAuth 2.0

OAuth is an IETF standard for authorization that is very widely used for web services (including consumer services). OAuth is designed to work over HTTP and is currently on version 2.0, which is not compatible with version 1.0. To add a little confusion to the mix, OAuth 2.0 is more of a framework and less rigid than OAuth 1.0, which means implementations may not be compatible. It is most often used for delegating access control/authorizations between services.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf?_ga=2.225992666.1359049959.1661450515-2107700575.1655484199


OS Virtualization

The capability to have a virtual workspace where different operating systems can be installed based on customer needs.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


OT (Operational Technology)

Operational technology (OT) is hardware and software that detects or causes a change, through the direct monitoring and/or control of industrial equipment, assets, processes and events

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/operational-technology-ot


OTP

One Time Password (OTP) is a valid password for a short period (e.g., only one login session or transaction) and is aimed at avoiding several shortcomings associated with traditional static passwords. One of the most popular approaches for generating OTPs is time-synchronization between the authentication server and the client. OTP implementations are often used in two-factor authentication solutions where the user enters a pin used as a variable in an algorithm that generates evidence of identity sent to an enforcement agent that determines if the identity is valid.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Objectives

Measurable objectives for services and their delivery used in assessing performance versus a service level agreement.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Obligation

In XACML, an obligation is a directive from the Policy Decision Point to the Policy Enforcement Point on what action must be completed before or after an access is granted.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


On-Premises

Refers to computers and software installed at an organization’s facility rather than at a remote location or in the cloud.

Sources

Disaster Recovery as a Service : CSA


Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)

An online protocol used to determine the status of a public key certificate.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/online_certificate_status_protocol


Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

Qualifies standards for the exchange of information among systems that are “open” to one another for this purpose by virtue of their mutual use of applicable standards.

Sources

https://www.ecma-international.org/wp-content/uploads/s020269e.pdf


OpenID Connect

OpenID is a standard for federated authentication that is very widely supported for web services. It is based on HTTP with URLs used to identify the identity provider and the user/ identity (e.g. identity.identityprovider.com). The current version is OpenID Connect 1.0 and it is very commonly seen in consumer services.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf?_ga=2.225992666.1359049959.1661450515-2107700575.1655484199


Operational Budgeting

The planning process used to determine day to day investments such as Maintenance of existing services and infrastructure, applications, among other associated elements that allow the organization to operate. Usually, the Chargeback process is used to distribute these costs across medium to large organizations.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Operational Changes

A type of planned change resulting from ongoing maintenance activities of existing services.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Operational Risk Committee

Ensures that operational considerations are given to all identified business risks. It is not possible to adequately prioritize risk unless true operational considerations are considered.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Operational Risk Management

Operational Risk Management provides a holistic perspective for risk evaluation from the business perspective, using the risk management framework will help to have insight into risks and threats to the organization, as well the framework will provide means to assess, manage, and control the different risks across the organization.
The use of an Operational Risk Committee (ORC) should be in place to periodically discuss the threat and compliance landscape that the organization has throughout time. Usually, the participants for this committee are conformed by the business (i.e., CEO, COO, CIO, CFO), compliance (CRO, Compliance Officers), and Control personnel (Audit, Security, and Risk Management).
The use of Business Impact Assessment methodologies will help the organization identify which processes are critical for the organization and plan accordingly to protect them, ensure proper continuity plans and measure the associated risk using Key Risk Indicators.
Key Risk Indicators can be monitored periodically through a Risk Scorecard, integrating information from Security Monitoring Services or information consolidated on the Information Services Domain.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Operational Security Baselines

A baseline specifies a policy compliant starting point that may be further specialized (e.g., a move to production process may include a baseline configuration that requires all default users/passwords, SNMP community names, etc. be changed from their default values before the equipment may be used in production. If the equipment were subject to additional hardening, such as deployment in the DMZ, further specialized baselines would apply).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Operational-Level Agreement (OLA)

An operational-level agreement (OLA) defines the interdependent relationships among the internal support groups of an organization working to support a service-level agreement (SLA). The agreement describes each internal support group’s responsibilities toward other support groups, including the process and timeframe for delivery of their services. The OLA’s objective is to present a clear, concise, and measurable description of the service provider’s internal support relationships.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Operator

The individual or organization responsible for the set of processes to deploy and manage IT services. They ensure the smooth functioning of the infrastructure and operational environments that support application deployment to internal and external customers, including the network infrastructure, server and device management, computer operations, IT infrastructure library (ITIL) management, and help desk services.

Sources

Cloud Security Alliance. Challenges in Securing Application Containers and Microservices Integrating Application Container Security Considerations into the Engineering of Trustworthy Secure Systems (Cloud Security Alliance: 2019) 42


Orphan Incident Management

Identification of incidents that do not have a current owner, so that appropriate resources can be engaged to resolve the problems.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Out of the Box (OTB) Authentication

A method for implementing user login functionality in the applications through the identity provider’s service without custom authentication code.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Out of the Box (OTB) Authorization

A method that allows authorization to be externalized from applications, for example, by providing an authorization plug-in. This allows developers to avoid the expense and trade-offs of creating custom access control. OTB Authorization solutions can provide full-featured authorization that includes a complete RBAC model, policy storage, user interface, built-in application group support, rule and query support, integrated system auditing, and performance optimization.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain

Letter P

PAC (Programmable Automation Controllers)

A programmable automation controller (PAC) is a term used to describe any type of automation controller that incorporates higher-level instructions. 

A PAC makes it possible to provide more complex instructions to automated equipment, enabling similar capabilities as that of PCbased controls, in an all-in-one package, like a programmable logic controller (PLC). 

Higher-end PLCs with increased capabilities are often marketed as PAC.

Sources

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/programmable-automation-controller-PAC


PCS (Process Control System)

Process control systems (PCS) — sometimes called industrial control systems (ICS) — function as pieces of equipment along the production line during manufacturing that tests the process in a variety of ways, and returns data for monitoring and troubleshooting. Many types of process control systems exist, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), programmable logic controllers (PLC), or distributed control systems (DCS), and they work to gather and transmit data obtained during the manufacturing process

Sources

https://www.thebalancesmb.com/process-control-systems-pcs-2221184


PERA (Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture)

PERA is a structure with which to design enterprise architectures. It includes a generalized model of the life cycle of an enterprise, and a methodology for planning the evolution of the enterprise. The PERA methodology is unique, in that it: 1. Specifically addresses the human and organizational aspects of the enterprise. 2. It is designed to address all phases of an enterprise from planning, to operations and renewal. 3. Integrates facility engineering and IT systems development methodologies 4. Addresses both process industries and discrete manufacturing (PERA). This model can be used for a variety of purposes including ICS Kill Chain Analysis (SANS) as well as ICS Network Segmentation Analysis (SEQ).

Sources

http://www.pera.net/ and https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/ICS/industrial-control-system-cyber-kill-chain-36297 Page 13 and: https://seqred.pl/en/ot_network_segmentation/


PKI

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a set of hardware, software, people, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates to support the use of public key cryptography for all participants in the business community. Components include registration authorities and certificate authorities. The PKI is typically a hierarchical model that consists of the root certificate authorities, registration authorities, and certificate authorities.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers)

A solid-state control system with a user-programmable memory to store instructions for the purpose of implementing specific functions such as I/O control, logic, timing, counting, three mode (PID) control, communication, arithmetic, and data and file processing.

Sources

NIST SP 800-82r2 https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-82/rev-2/final


Paravirtualization

A virtualized operating system where the source code for the guest operating system is modified to run specifically as a guest operating system instead of a binary equivalent of the original hardware-targeted operating system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Pass-The-Hash

Adversaries may “pass the hash” using stolen password hashes to move laterally within an environment, bypassing normal system access controls. Pass the hash (PtH) is a method of authenticating as a user without having access to the user’s cleartext password. This method bypasses standard authentication steps that require a cleartext password, moving directly into the portion of the authentication that uses the password hash.

Sources

https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1550/002/


Pass-The-Ticket

Adversaries may “pass the ticket” using stolen Kerberos tickets to move laterally within an environment, bypassing normal system access controls. Pass the ticket (PtT) is a method of authenticating to a system using Kerberos tickets without having access to an account’s password. Kerberos authentication can be used as the first step to lateral movement to a remote system.

Sources

https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1550/003/


Password Management

The process to specify multiple password policies, define password composition constraints, maintain password history, restrict passwords, configure password validity period, create password rules, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Password Vaulting

A software based solution to securely store and manage multiple passwords.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Patch Management

Concerned with assuring that required software fixes are applied in a controlled and timely fashion within the infrastructure. This includes both inventorying the services (operating systems, applications, embedded software, etc.) actually present in the infrastructure to identify the applicability of a particular fix and monitoring the infrastructure to assure that required fixes are actually present and installed.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications allow users within an enterprise to connect directly to each other to exchange instant messages or files.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Penetration Testing

A method of evaluating the security of a computer system or network by simulating an attack from malicious outsiders (who do not have an authorized means of accessing the organization’s systems) and malicious insiders (who have some level of authorized access), also referred as pentest.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Phishing

A technique for attempting to acquire sensitive data, such as bank account numbers, through a fraudulent solicitation in email or on a web site, in which the perpetrator masquerades as a legitimate business or reputable person.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/phishing


Physical Authentication

The process of verifying an asserted identity by physical means (e.g., a security guard verifying the photograph on an ID as matching the person providing it).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Physical Inventory

This process tracks all the physical components across the Information Technology organization. Also tracks the ownership and custody for these assets.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Physical Security

Concerned with mitigating physical threats to a facility and its employees (e.g., fire suppression equipment and regular fire drills).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Plan Management

The overall process for assuring that the DRP is continuously updated to reflect changes in the business and its critical functions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Planned Changes

Planned changes are changes that are identified well in advance of their needed implementation. These changes are carefully thought through and fully documented.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


PoSSo problem

This is the Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hardness (NP-hard) problem of solving a set of non-linear equations.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Policies & Standards

Security policies are part of a logical abstraction of an Enterprise Security Architecture. They are derived from risk-based business requirements and exist at several different levels including, Information Security Policy, Physical Security Policy, Business Continuity Policy, Infrastructure Security Policies, Application Security Policies, and the overarching Business Operational Risk Management Policy. Security Policies are statements that capture requirements specifying what type of security and how much should be applied to protect the business. Policies typically state what should be done while avoiding reference to particular technical solutions. Security Standards are an abstraction at the component level and are needed to ensure that the many different components can be integrated into systems. There are many internationally recognized standards for security from standards bodies such as ISO, IETF, IEEE, ISACA, OASIS, and TCG. Direction can also be provided in operational security baselines, job aid guidelines, best practices, correlation of regulatory requirements, and role-based awareness. One way to approach security policy and its implementation is to classify information and associate policies with the resulting classes of data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Policy Administrator

This component is responsible for establishing and/or shutting down the communication path between a subject and a resource (via commands to relevant PEPs).

See also: Policy Engine

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf


Policy Definition

A phase in authorization services that describe course or fine grained access or constraints to resources.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Policy Enforcement

A phase in Authorization Services, where access requests are approved or disapproved.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Policy Engine

This component is responsible for the ultimate decision to grant access to a resource for a given subject. The PE uses enterprise policy as well as input from external sources as input to a trust algorithm to grant, deny, or revoke access to the resource. The PE is paired with the policy administrator component. The policy engine makes and logs the decision (as approved, or denied), and the policy administrator executes the decision.

See also: Policy Administrator

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf


Policy Management

A process or platform for centralized policy creation, repository and management. Policy management strives to maintain an organization structure and process that supports the creation, implementation, exception handling, and frameworks that represent business requirements.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Policy decision point (PDP)

Mechanism that examines requests to access resources, and compares them to the policy that applies to all requests for accessing that resource to determine whether specific access should be granted to the particular requester who issued the request under consideration.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/policy_decision_point


Policy enforcement point (PEP)

A system entity that requests and subsequently enforces authorization decisions.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/policy_enforcement_point


Policy-Based Access Control (PBAC)

A strategy for managing user access to one or more systems, where the business roles of users is combined with policies to determine what access privileges users of each role should have. Theoretical privileges are compared to actual privileges, and differences are automatically applied. For example, a role may be defined for a manager. Specific types of accounts on the single sign-on server, Web server, and database management system may be attached to this role. Appropriate users are then attached to this role.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/policy_based_access_control


Politically Exposed Person

Someone who, through their prominent position or influence, is more susceptible to being involved in bribery or corruption.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Port

Another essential asset through which security can be breached. In computer science, ports are of two types - physical ports (which is a physical docking point where other devices connect) and logical ports (which is a well-programmed docking point through which data flows over the internet). Security and its consequences lie in a logical port.

Sources

https://www.w3schools.in/cyber-security/ports-and-its-security/


Port Knocking

Port-knocking is the concept of hiding remote services behind a firewall which allows access to the services’ listening ports only after the client has successfully authenticated to the firewall.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7600145


Portable Devices

Devices that are not easily movable and are designed to be used from only one location.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Portfolio Management

This container is focused on planning, tracking, prioritizing current and future projects and programs for the enterprise.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Post-quantum cryptography

This refers to the set of cryptographic schemes which will remain secure even in a world where quantum computers exist. This includes quantum cryptosystems such as Quantum-Key Distribution (QKD); algorithmic-based cryptosystems such as lattice-based, code-based, multivariate-based, hashbased and isogeny-based cryptosystems; and symmetric key cryptographic systems such as AES. Terminology related to post-quantum cryptography appeared in academic literature soon after P.W Shor’s quantum polynomialtime algorithm for solving integer factorizations and discrete logarithm was introduced. Note that there remains some ambiguity around this term, with some organizations not including QKD.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Power Redundancy

Providing multiple sources of electrical power to assure continuous operation in spite of loss of external utility power.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Presentation Modality

The Presentation Modality Services focus on the security concerns that differ based on user and service type. The two major types are Consumer Service Platforms like Social Media, Collaboration, Search, Email and e-Readers, and Enterprise Service Platforms like Business-to-Consumer (B2C), Business-to-Employee(B2E), Business-to-Business (B2B), etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Presentation Platform

The Presentation Platform Services focus on the different types of Endpoints that end-users utilize to interact with a solution such as Desktops, Mobile Devices (smartphones, tablets), Portable Devices (laptops), or special purposes devices such as medical devices or smart appliances. The presentation platform also includes different interaction technologies such as Speech Recognition or Handwriting Recognition that could be used to interact with a solution.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Presentation Services

The Presentation Services domain is where the end-user interacts with an IT solution. Presentation is the website you see when you go to an online bank. It is the voice on the phone when you call the airline reservation system or the mobile platform when you order remotely.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Principal Data Management

The capability for the management of all attributes regarding the subjects of access control decisions. These principals can be users, machines, or services. Authorization decisions may need to consider many attributes about the principals, including role, location, relationships to accounts, other principals, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Principle of Least Privilige

The principle that a security architecture is designed so that each entity is granted the minimum system authorizations and resources that the entity needs to perform its function.

See also: Principle of Need to Know

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-171r2.pdf


Principle of Need to Know

Decision made by an authorized holder of official information that a prospective recipient requires access to specific official information to carry out official duties.

See also: Principle of Least Privilige

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/need_to_know


Private cloud

The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off-premises.

Sources

NIST 2011, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/ sp/800-145/final


Privilege Management Infrastructure

Privilege Management Infrastructure ensures users have access and privileges required to execute their duties and responsibilities with Identity and Access Management (IAM) functions such as identity management, authentication services, authorization services, and privilege usage management. This security discipline enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times for the right reasons. It addresses the mission-critical need to ensure appropriate access to resources across increasingly heterogeneous technology environments and meet increasingly rigorous compliance requirements. This security practice is a crucial undertaking for any enterprise. The technical controls of Privilege Management Infrastructure focus on identity provisioning, password, and multi-factor authentication, policy management, etc. It is also increasingly business-aligned, and it requires business skills, not just technical expertise.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Privilege Usage Events

Events indicating administrative changes made to the system which could impact confidentiality, availability, or integrity of the system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Privilege Usage Gateway

A gateway to grant/deny connection for sessions based on usage privilege on that workload.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Privilege Usage Management

Management of access to sensitive information resources by privileged users such as administrators. Characteristics of robust management include that it be centralized, policy-driven, automated, granular, and auditable. A privileged user management system can control access to the administrative accounts used to install, configure, administer, and manage operating systems, applications, and databases.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Privileged Account Management

A domain within identity and access management (IdAM) that focuses on monitoring and controlling the use of privileged accounts. Privileged accounts include local and domain administrative accounts, emergency accounts, application management, and service accounts.

SDP is often used to control access by users or services with privileged accounts, increasing the security and visibility of access by these accounts by instantly providing information about the users making connections and from what device.

Sources

https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/sites/default/files/legacy-files/fs-pam-nist-sp1800-18-draft.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Privileged Identity Management (PIM)

Data types such as contacts, calendar entries, tasks, notes, memos, and email that may be synchronized from PC to device and vice-versa.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/personal_information_management


Problem Management

Process of managing recurring incidents as problems to find and fix root causes to prevent future events from recurring.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Problem Resolution

The process of identifying the appropriate changes to configuration items and/or processes necessary to address the root cause of a problem to minimize the likelihood of recurrence.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Process Ownership

Documentation regarding the business processes and the responsible parties for oversight and operations of those processes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Product Owner

The person who identifies the customer need and the larger business objectives that a product or feature will fulfill, articulates what success looks like for a product, and drives a team to turn product vision into a reality

Sources

Mansour, S. (2020). Product Manager. Atlassian Software. https://www.atlassian.com/agile/ product-management/product-manager.

Agile Alliance. Product Owner. Accessed August 10, 2021 at https://www.agilealliance.org/ glossary/product-owner/.


Program Management

Program management deals with the incident after it has begun the cycle through the remediation process. Program management architecture interacts with the service desk. Program management offers advanced root cause analysis tools and technologies and interfaces with the information repositories to perform trending and prevention services within the environment.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Programming Interfaces

[Application] Programming Interfaces (APIs) allow applications or services to talk to another or allow pieces of an application to talk to each other. Input validation is important for these interfaces to make sure that only the expected input is being provided. Lack of this validation can create vulnerabilities by allowing attackers to inject malicious code into the application or retrieve more data than they are supposed to access.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Project Changes

A type of planned change resulting from a project. Project changes occur due to implementation or changes to business requirements.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Project Management

All processes, artifacts, and methodologies associated with the Project Management Office to track projects (best practices include PMI Body of Knowledge among others).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Project Management Office (PMO)

The Project Management Office (PMO) is the department or group that defines and maintains the standards of process, generally related to project management within the organization. The PMO strives to standardize and introduce economies of repetition in the execution of projects. The PMO is the source of documentation, guidance, and metrics on the practice of project management and execution. In some organizations, this is known as the Program Management Office.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Propagation

Propagation refers to the propagation of a security context through different services. 

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Public Cloud

The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

Sources

NIST 2011, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/ sp/800-145/final


Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

The framework and services that provide for the generation, production, distribution, control, accounting, and destruction of public key certificates. Components include the personnel, policies, processes, server platforms, software, and workstations used for the purpose of administering certificates and public-private key pairs, including the ability to issue, maintain, recover, and revoke public key certificates.

SDPs may use PKI for generation of TLS certificates and for secure connections. If no PKI infrastructure exists, SDPs can provide TLS certificates for use to secure connections.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/public_key_infrastructure

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Public Kiosk

Public Kiosks are devices, often PCs, that are used by multiple people in a shared space.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain

Letter Q

Quantum Random Number Generator (QRNG)

This refers to quantum-based noise source that derives random numbers from measurements conducted on a quantum process or quantum system. The uniqueness and randomness of these measurements/outcomes are of quantum origin, as described by quantum mechanics. Examples of QRNGs include several commercial systems that generate random numbers from measurements made on optical quantum states of light. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum annealing

This is a quantum process that solves optimization problems faster than if utilizing a classical computer.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum bit or Qubit
This is the quantum analogue of a classic computer bit. It is a quantum system consisting of two levels, usually denoted by 0> and 1>. 
Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum computer

A variant of quantum-resistant cryptography used recently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum cryptography

This refers to cryptosystems whose security is guaranteed by the physical law of quantum mechanics. It differs from classical public-key cryptography, whose security relies on the difficulty of solving certain mathematical problems.

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum-Key Distribution (QKD)

Quantum-Key Distribution is an example of quantum cryptography that allows the information-theoretically secure distribution of keys between two spatially separate parties who are also connected by an insecure optical channel. There are two complementary approaches to QKD: (1) discrete variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD) uses single-photons or weak coherent states and single photon detectors; and (2) continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD), which uses coherent or squeezed states of light and homodyne detectors. Both continuous and discrete approaches have been experimentally demonstrated; just as importantly, both have been proven to be information-theoretically secure. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum-resistant cryptography

This term also refers to the set of cryptographic schemes which will remain secure even in a world where quantum computers exist. This terminology was used by the United States National Security Agency in their announcement regarding their, “preliminary plans for transitioning to quantum resistant algorithms.” This term is not completely equivalent to post-quantum cryptography, as it only refers to algorithmic techniques. Additionally, it does not appear to include physical technology such as Quantum-Key Distribution (QKD). 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Quantum-safe cryptography

This refers to the set of cryptographic schemes which will remain secure even in a world where quantum computers exist. The term was recently coined, but is often used interchangeably with the term “post-quantum cryptography.” Furthermore, it has been used by working groups in the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Cloud Security Alliance (CSA).

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA

Letter R

RA

Documentation of the scope and results of Risk Assessments (RA).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


REST (Representational State Transfer)

REST (REpresentational State Transfer) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for developing web services that use the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/S). A RESTful interface provides interoperability between computer systems on the Internet and allows the requesting system to access and manipulate data by a uniform set of stateless operations. 
Data in devices not yet IoT enabled can be utilized by any application that can make RESTful HTTPS requests to read and write data from devices such as controllers.

Sources

https://www.controldesign.com/articles/2016/it-invades-controller-programming/ and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer


RTUs (Remote Terminal Units)

Remote Terminal Units (RTU) are also referred to as Remote Telemetry Units. An RTU is an electronic device which is controlled by a microprocessor. The main function of an RTU is to interface the SCADA or Distributed Control System (DCS) to physically present objects. The functionality of RTUs and PLCs has started to overlap due to cheaper hardware, thus encouraging the industry to standardize the language for programs on which RTUs run.

Sources

http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/industrial/difference-between-plc-and-rtu/


Ransomware

Ransomware is malicious software that gains access to an organization’s systems and data and then encrypts these systems and data rendering them inaccessible without the encryption key. The attacker supplies the decrypt key only if the victim pays a fee (ransom). Ransomware can gain access to systems through such avenues as users interacting with phishing emails or infected websites.

Sources

Disaster Recovery as a Service : CSA


Real Time Filtering

A control to track use patterns and information like what sites are visited and blocked some in real-time based on policies.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Real-Time Internet Work Defense (SCAP)

Security Content Automation Protocol is a continuous assurance process that verifies compliance with security policies and procedures in real time.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Recovery Plans

Recovery plans describe the processes and procedures required to restore service delivery after interruption or disaster. The plans will often include steps to gradually restore the service while monitoring the performance and system health of every reached milestone.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Recovery Point Objectives (RPO)

The point in time to which data must be recovered after an outage.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/recovery_point_objective


Recovery Time Objectives (RTO)

The overall length of time an information system’s components can be in the recovery phase before negatively impacting the organization’s mission or mission/business processes.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/recovery_time_objective


Reflexive Security

Reflexive Security is an approach for information security management built upon the principles of Agile and DevOps. It is a non-prescriptive framework that is purely needs-based, emphasizes collective responsibility, and considers information security and its responses to be a holistic function of the organization. 

Reflexive Security emphasizes security across organizational roles that reacts to external and internal threats in an agile and dynamic way. It aims to be a new information security management strategy that is dynamic, interactive, effective and holistic.

Sources

As defined in ISO 27000 and Information Security Management through Reflexive Security : CSA.


Registry Services

Registry services catalog services available within the IT infrastructure and the metadata around how they should be accessed.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Release Management

The release management architecture is the set of conceptual patterns that support the movement of pre-production technical resources into production. Pre-production includes all the activities that are necessary to prove that a particular resource is appropriate for the technical, business, and operational environment and does not exceed a risk profile for a particular task. Significant release management patterns include those for release scheduling, release acceptance, and audit. Release management plays a vital role both as a process and as a set of technologies and it provides a vital control point for request, change, and configuration management processes and architectures.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Remediation

This capability is focused on projects that are remediating existing gaps, or findings that affect the enterprise. A remediation dashboard is recommended to be used to track progress for senior management.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Remote

A virtual machine that is delivered over the network as opposed to being installed locally on a device.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Reportable Incidents

Incidents deemed to have a significant enough impact that they need to be reported outside the entity according to laws or regulations.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Reporting Services

Reporting services provide the ability to present data in various ways going from a top-level aggregated dashboard, drilling down to raw data. Reporting services also offer the ability to mine and analyze data and provide business intelligence to decision-makers

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Reporting Tools

Reporting tools provide end-users with the ability to generate reports, share reports with other users, and analyze the information domain’s data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Repudiation

Creating a situation of dispute, lack or compromise of the authenticity of a record or data. In cloud testing repudiation often takes the form of deleting or turning off cloud logs or leveraging cloud services and mechanisms to mask an action or occurrence.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Residual Risk Management

Analysis and plans for remediating information security risk that remains after the theoretical or applied implementation of mitigating controls with the intent of increasing control effectiveness and ultimately reducing risk to an acceptable level.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Resiliency Analysis

The process that assesses the ability of an organization to continue to deliver services despite the occurrence of various events (e.g., loss of power, loss of network connectivity, etc.).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Resource Data Management

Authorization plays a key role in data management by simultaneously providing access and protection to application information resources.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Resource Management

Resource management deals with the accurate assignment of resources to IT service delivery functions. It is considered a sharable service, separate from project management since the same patterns can be applied to solve operational, production, and emergency resource allocations. Resource management includes technologies that assist in resource pooling, forecasting, and leveling. Other resource management functions are more strictly related to solutions for Human Resources management. This service does provide valuable input into the BOSS Domain for costing, forecasting, and planning activities.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Resource Protection

Prevention of misuse of computer resources.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Ring-LWE (RLWE) problem

This is a variant of the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem in which the (noisy) linear system to be solved is structured [LPR]. 

Sources

[LPR] V. Lyubashevsky, C. Peikert and Oded Regev. On Ideal Lattices and Learning with Errors over Rings. J. ACM, 2013.


Risk

A subset of “business risks” and, as such, should be talked about in business terms. Instead of defining risk in technical terms, cybersecurity professionals—when speaking to executives—can adopt the definition of risk used by almost every business manager and board of directors: the potential for monetary loss. In this context, “risk” is the possibility that an event will lead to reduced profitability. Therefore, a cyber event causing damage to an organization’s brand or reputation can be quantified.

Sources

Information Technology Governance, Risk and Compliance in Healthcare : CSA


Risk Appetite

The tolerance level organizations have for risk. One aspect of this is understanding how much risk an organization is willing to tolerate, while another is thinking about how much an organization is willing to invest or spend to manage the risk.

Sources

Information Technology Governance, Risk and Compliance in Healthcare : CSA


Risk Assessments

Risk Assessments measure the maturity of the organization’s controls from a reference framework perspective (i.e., COBIT, ISO27001), regulatory perspective (i.e., SOX, PCI).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Risk Based Authentication

A non-static authentication system which takes into account the profile(IP address, User-Agent HTTP header, time of access, and so on) of the agent requesting access to the system to determine the risk profile associated with that transaction. The risk profile is then used to determine the complexity of the challenge. Higher risk profiles leads to stronger challenges, whereas a static username/password may suffice for lower-risk profiles. Risk-based implementation allows the application to challenge the user for additional credentials only when the risk level is appropriate

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Risk Dashboard

Graphically measure and report the level of potential, inherent, and residual risks and the effectiveness of controls to help the organization understand threats and vulnerabilities and make risk-based decisions to maintain or improve control effectiveness.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Risk Management

Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Risk Management Framework

Ensures that a repeatable process is defined and documented that is workable within the business. The risk management framework must be used within the business context for which it is defined.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Risk Portfolio Management

An articulation of the Information Security Program’s scope and charter includes, for example, such focus areas as reputation, corporate governance and regulation, corporate social responsibility, and information assurance. The portfolio can change as necessary to remain consistent with the business objectives and to remain relevant and responsive to a changing threat landscape and evolving laws and regulations.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Risk Taxonomy

A taxonomy to identify, capture, and classify known threats. One example used in the SABSA threat modeling framework defines threat domains (people, processes, systems, external events) and threat categories based on experience and observation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Risk Tolerance

The level of risk or degree of uncertainty acceptable to organizations. An organization’s risk tolerance level is the amount of data and systems that can be risked to an acceptable level.

Sources

Information Technology Governance, Risk and Compliance in Healthcare : CSA


Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA)

A public-key algorithm that is used for key establishment and the generation and verification of digital signatures.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-175Br1.pdf


Roadmap

Strategic direction and plans for changes to capabilities and solutions within the technology portfolio (including the security roadmap) to accomplish a desired future state (e.g., continuous innovation, integration of capabilities, etc.). This process must be aligned with the business strategy).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Role Based Access Control (RBAC)

Access control based on user roles (i.e., a collection of access authorizations a user receives based on an explicit or implicit assumption of a given role). Role permissions may be inherited through a role hierarchy and typically reflect the permissions needed to perform defined functions within an organization. A given role may apply to a single individual or to several individuals.

SDPs can make use of role information (typically housed in an identity management system) to control connections to resources such as servers, devices, processes, and data as part of an SDP policy.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/role_based_access_control

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Role Based Awareness

Association of policy with a given role. For example, a user might be designated as a ‘local user’ and a function such as data transfers might be configured to only be available to the ‘local user’ role and not be available to a user with a role of ‘mobile user’.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Role Management

A role represents a set of permissions and privileges, and role management assures that roles are correctly defined to include only the required permissions and privileges and adequately assigned to entities.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Roles and Responsibilities

Dividing the work among multiple positions with different roles and responsibilities allows for the segregation of duties to ensure appropriate integrity within an organization’s processes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Root Cause Analysis

An important component of incident response that looks beyond the face details of an incident to determine the root cause of the incident (e.g., a missing patch might enable a successful intrusion but root cause analysis might reveal that the vulnerable service should never have been running anyway).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Rules for Data Retention

This capability manages the policies, procedures, or requirements associated with keeping data (transactions information, email, document images, card swipes, online browsing history) as long as required to do so from the business and regulatory perspective, then secured disposal.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Rules for Information Leakage Prevention

This capability manages policies, procedures, and business requirements associated with data loss prevention and controls related to data privacy and protection throughout the organization. Examples of this include Content Management, Share File Repositories, and Data usage from the Endpoint perspective.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Runtime Application Security Protection (RASP)

Security technology deployed within the target application in production for detecting, alerting, and blocking attacks.
Note 1 to entry: Similar to a WAF but instrumented within the application

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA

Letter S

SAML Assertion

Conveys information from a verifier to an relying party about a successful act of authentication that took place between the verifier and a subscriber.

SDPs can use a SAML assertion to authenticate and authorize users into the perimeter.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-63-2.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


SAML Token

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) tokens are XML representations of claims. SAML tokens carry statements that are sets of claims made by one entity about another entity.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)

SCADA systems are used to control dispersed assets where centralized data acquisition is as important as control. These systems are used in various industrial systems. SCADA systems integrate data acquisition systems with data transmission systems and HMI software to provide a centralized monitoring and control system for numerous process inputs and outputs. SCADA systems are designed to collect field information, transfer it to a central computer facility, and display the information to the operator graphically or textually, thereby allowing the operator to monitor or control an entire system from a central location in near realtime. Based on the sophistication and setup of the individual system, control of any individual system, operation, or task can be automatic, or it can be performed by operator commands.

Sources

NIST SP 800-82r2 https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-82/rev-2/final


SIEM Platform

The Security Information and Event Management Platform collects, correlates, reports, on multiple security information sources to maintain situational awareness.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


SIS (Safety Instrumented System)

Safety Instrumented Systems are used to monitor the condition of values and parameters of a plant within the operational limits and, when risk conditions occur, they trigger alarms and place the plant in a safe condition or even at the shutdown condition. The main objective is to avoid accidents inside and outside plants.

Sources

http://www.smar.com/en/technical-article/sis-safety-instrumented-syst02


SOC Portal

A dashboard application maintained by the Security Operations Center to give overall visibility of the organization’s security status.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


SVP

This stands for the Shortest Vector Problem, which requires the shortest vector in a lattice to be found. The problem is Non-deterministic Polynomialtime hardness (NP-hard) under randomized reduction for the Euclidean norm. This is a hard problem that occurs in lattice-based cryptography. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Scheduling

As part of release management, a detailed schedule of releases and their features should be developed to bundle many change requests into a single change calendar.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


SecDevOps

Application of DevOps culture, practices, and workflows for the achievement of information security and compliance management.

Sources

As defined in ISO 27000 and Information Security Management through Reflexive Security : CSA.


Secure Build

The standard software image that is assured to comply with security policies.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Secure Collaboration

A technology or solution for securing collaboration service (e.g., SharePoint) to extend access to employees on the go, partners, vendors, and even customers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Secure Disposal of Data

Ensure that data is destroyed appropriately to preclude its recovery (e.g., through digital forensic techniques).Documentation of such destruction should be in place and should be included in information lifecycle management processes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Secure Messaging

A server-based approach to protect sensitive data when sent beyond the corporate borders and provides compliance with industry regulations such as HIPAA, GLBA and SOX.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Secure Sandbox

An isolated environment that provides abstraction of trust concerns between custom or third party code and the underlying system. Allows applications to run in a context that does not affect each other or the host operating system and allows the enterprise to have an area with managed security controls for applications with sensitive data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Secure Shell (SSH)

A protocol for secure remote login and other secure network services over an insecure network, which typically runs on top of TCP/IP. The protocol can be used as a basis for a number of secure network services. It provides strong encryption, server authentication, and integrity protection. It may also provide compression.

SDPs require using mutual TLS v1.2 and higher to enable secure connections and better management of keys that are typically not managed effectively with SSH remote logins and file transfers.

Sources

https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc4253

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A security protocol providing privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications. The protocol is composed of two layers: the TLS record protocol and the TLS handshake protocol.

SDPs require using mutual TLS v1.2 and higher to enable secure connections.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/secure_sockets_layer

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Security Application Framework

Application frameworks provide a set of components that act as the fundamental starting point of an application. Frameworks enable application developers to reuse standard components across multiple applications and focus their efforts on the specific business needs of the applications. Security Application Frameworks provide security components that extend a specific application framework. For example, the ACEGI security framework became an official part of the Spring Framework for building web applications with Java.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Security Architecture

Represents the portion of the enterprise architecture that specifically addresses information system resilience and provides architectural information for the implementation of capabilities to meet security requirements.

Sources

Gantz, S. D., & Philpott, D. R. (2013). FISMA and the Risk Management Framework. ScienceDirect.


Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

A protocol consisting of XML-based request and response message formats for exchanging security information, expressed in the form of assertions about subjects, between online business partners.

SDPs often support user authentication with identity providers via SAML; it supports the SDP model of connecting to existing enterprise identity management systems.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/security_assertion_markup_language

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Security Assertion Markup Language 2.0 (SAML2)

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 is an OASIS standard for federated identity management that supports both authentication and authorization. It uses XML to make assertions between an identity provider and a relying party. Assertions can contain authentication statements, attribute statements, and authorization decision statements. SAML is very widely supported by both enterprise tools and cloud providers but can be complex to initially configure.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf?_ga=2.225992666.1359049959.1661450515-2107700575.1655484199


Security Assessment

Third party audits of cloud services based on industry standards.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


Security Code Review

Security code review capabilities from a self-service point of view refers to the ability to use a source code analyzer tool to read the source code of a program and identify areas of the code vulnerable to well-known attack patterns.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Security Controls Overlay

An overlay is a fully-specified set of controls, control enhancements, and supplemental guidance derived from the application of tailoring guidance to control baselines. For more information about Control Overlays, NIST Special Publication NIST SP 800-53 Rev 4., Section 3.3 Creating Overlays, and Appendix I, Overlay Template.

Sources

NIST Information Technology Laboratory: Computer Security Resource Center (CRSC). (2009, June 12). FISMA Implementation Project. https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/federal-informationsecurity-management-act-fisma-implementation-project.


Security Design Patterns

Design Patterns are blueprints and instructions for solving commonly occurring technical challenges. Security Design Patterns focus on designs of security capabilities such as authentication, authorization, log monitoring, single sign-on, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Security FAQ

One of the outcomes from the knowledge management process would be to establish a standard and consistent answer to questions that employees ask frequently. This process captures those questions associated with information security and compliance.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Security Group

Are sets of IP filter rules that are applied to all project instances, which define networking access to the instance.

Cloud security groups can be effectively used with a SDP, by being set to ensure that inbound network access to cloud-based resources is only permitted from an SDP gateway. By doing so, the SDP policy will act as the access control enforcement point, rather than the cloud security group. The cloud security group can also be used to require that outbound traffic be directed through the SDP gateway, if supported by the SDP implementation.

Sources

https://docs.openstack.org/nova/train/admin/security-groups.html#:~:text=Security%20groups%20are%20sets%20of,networking%20access%20to%20the%20instance.&text=By%20default%2C%20security%20groups%20(and,by%20the%20Neutron%20networking%20service

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Security Guidance

CSA’s flagship research document, it provides both guidance and inspiration to manage and mitigate the risks associated with the adoption of cloud computing technology while supporting business goals.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/guidance/


Security Incident Response

The process and procedures for responding to a declared security incident.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Security Job Aids

As security standards and patterns are created across the organization, they should include guidelines and processes that can help employees comply with regulatory requirements or security standards in a consistent manner.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Security Knowledge Life Cycle

To build secure applications, a development team must keep up to date with the latest threats and appropriate countermeasures in their development process. A security framework is often used to provide reusable components when a development team is building multiple applications.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Security Monitoring

This container groups together the information sources coming from the BOSS - Security Monitoring Services.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Security Monitoring Services

All capabilities associated with proactive security and risk management situational awareness across the organization with a business focus to prevent internal or external attacks, misuse of privilege, and data loss, while maintaining proper monitoring for the organization’s data and access regardless where these services are allocated or managed (Cloud, Internal, Hosted, etc.)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Security Orchestration Automation and Response (SOAR)

Refers to technologies that enable organizations to collect inputs monitored by the security operations team. SOAR tools allow an organization to define incident analysis and response procedures in a digital workflow format.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/security-orchestration-automation-response-soar


Security Patrols

Periodic rounds by human or animal guards to deter and detect illicit activity as well as verify the status of other security controls (e.g., verifying doors are locked).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Security Policy

A high-level document representing an enterprise’s information security philosophy and commitment.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Security Procedure

The formal documentation of operational steps and processes that specify how security goals and objectives set forward in the security policy and standards are to be achieved.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Security Standard

Practices, directives, guidelines, principles or baselines that state what needs to be done and focus areas of current relevance and concern; they are a translation of issues already mentioned in the security policy.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Security Testing

Ensuring that the modified or new system includes appropriate controls and does not introduce any security holes that might compromise other systems or misuses of the system or its’ information.

Sources

ISACA. Interactive Glossary & Term Translations. Retrieved August 11, 2021, from https://www. isaca.org/resources/glossary.


Security Token

A small hardware device (sometimes called an authentication token) that the owner carries to authorize access to a network service. The device may be in the form of a smart card or may be embedded in a commonly used object such as a key fob.

Security tokens provide an extra level of assurance through a method known as multi-factor authentication for SDPs.

Sources

https://archive.unescwa.org/secure-token

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Security and Risk Management (SRM)

Security and Risk Management is the passwords, firewalls, and encryption that protect computer systems and data. It is the processes that define policies and audit systems against those policies. It uses ethical hackers and tools to test for weak spots in the systems. These services are what most people think of when they think of cyber security.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Security information and event management (SIEM)

This technology supports threat detection, compliance and security incident management through the collection and analysis (both near real time and historical) of security events, as well as a wide variety of other event and contextual data sources. The core capabilities are a broad scope of log event collection and management, the ability to analyze log events and other data across disparate sources, and operational capabilities (such as incident management, dashboards and reporting).

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/security-information-and-event-management-siem


Self Assessment

A tool and process that involves performing an analysis/assessment of risk or compliance by the owner/user rather than by a third party.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Self-Service

This capability allows anyone in the organization to report an incident and begin the incident management process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Sensitive File Protection

The ability to protect sensitive information from being read or modified by administrators who have access to a file system but are not authorized to read the protected data within certain files. Also, the ability to monitor changes to sensitive files to audit who is making changes to them or reading them.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Sensors

A Sensor is a device that identifies the progressions in electrical or physical or other quantities and in a way to deliver a yield as an affirmation of progress in the quantity. In simple terms, Industrial Automation and Control Sensors are input devices that provide an output (signal) with respect to a specific physical quantity (input). Examples of sensor types include temperature, pressure, vacuum, motion, and torque. 

Sources

https://www.plantautomation-technology.com/articles/types-of-sensors-used-in-industrial-automation


Separation (Segregation of Duties)

Segregation of Duties - is a basic building block of sustainable risk management and internal controls for a business. The principle of SOD is based on shared responsibilities of a key process that disperses the critical functions of that process to more than one person or department.

Sources

https://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/informationtechnology/resources/value-strategy-through-segregation-of-duties.html


Separation of Duties

Separation of duties (SoD) is the concept of having more than one person required to complete a task to prevent fraud and error.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Server

See Servers

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Server (Data at Rest)

See Data at Rest Encryption (DLP in this case)

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Server Application Streaming

The server-side component of an application streaming solution responsible for delivering content to multiple clients.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Server Virtualization

Concerned with creating, accessing and managing a virtual server. Controls at this level assure that a server is configured correctly, includes the proper software image, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Server-Side Discovery

The Server requests the load balancer for the network locations of available services from the service registry.

Sources

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture


Service Catalog

Service Catalog is a list of services that an organization provides, often to its employees or customers. Each service within the catalog typically includes: Service Description, Timeframes or service level agreement for fulfilling the service, Who is entitled to request/view the service, Service Costs (if any) and how to fulfill the service.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Service Costing

The internal function that analyzes the overall costs accrued in delivering a particular service so that revenue (whether external or internal chargeback) is adequate to support the delivery of that service.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service Dashboard

All SLAs, OLAs, and contracts should have associated and defined Key Performance Indicators, Key Goal Indicators, and Key Risk Indicators that must be tracked periodically to manage these agreements. The service dashboard should present these metrics for decision making.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service Delivery

Service Delivery deals with those technologies that are essential in maintaining uninterrupted technical services. Services in this category typically include those that are more appropriate to the technical staff, such as availability management, service level management, service continuity, and capacity management. Service Delivery is primarily concerned with the proactive and forward-looking services that the business requires from Information Technology to provide adequate support to the business users.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service Discovery

Processes and procedures for identifying the services actually present (as opposed to those documented as being present) in order to assume that appropriate patches are installed.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Service Events

Information regarding services provided in support of IT operations could include deployments, changes, and maintenance events. Events can be based on key performance indicators crossing a threshold, network alarms, device metrics.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Service ID

A unique value assigned by the controller for each remote service, is the most significant 32 bits of the Mux ID.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Service Level Management

The function responsible for assuring that the level of services provided is in agreement with contractual obligations on an ongoing basis.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service Management

Service management is a discipline for managing information technology (IT) systems, philosophically centered on the customer’s perspective of IT’s contribution to the business.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

In SOA, the entire gamut of solutions (e.g. supporting a business process) is broken up into multiple parts or components called services. This approach makes the development, maintenance and deployment of the entire application easier as operations can be limited to a specific service rather than to an entire application.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/best-practices-in-implementing-a-secure-microservices-architecture/

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture : CSA


Service Provisioning

The process of implementing a new configuration item or changes to an existing configuration item.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service Registry

The registry contains the locations of available instances of services. Service instances are registered with the service registry on startup and deregistered on shutdown. Client of the service and/or routers query the service registry to find the available instances of a service.

Sources

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture


Service Support

Service Support is focused on the User of Information Technology services and is primarily concerned with ensuring that they have access to the appropriate services to support the business functions. 

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Service boundaries

Service boundaries are defined by the declarative description of the functionality provided by the service. A service - within its boundary - owns, encapsulates and protects its private data and only chooses to expose certain (business) functions outside the boundary. 

Sources

How to Design a Secure Serverless Architecture


Service-Level Agreement (SLA)

A Service-Level Agreement (SLA) is a negotiated agreement between two parties, where one is the customer (or end-user), and the other is the service provider. This can be a legally binding formal or an informal ‘contract’ (for example, internal department relationships). The SLA records a common understanding about services, priorities, responsibilities, guarantees, and warranties. The SLA may specify the levels of availability, serviceability, performance, operation, or other attributes of the service, such as billing. The ‘level of service’ can also be specified as ‘target’ and ‘minimum,’ which allows customers to be informed what to expect (the minimum) while providing a measurable (average) target value that shows the level of organization performance. In some contracts, penalties may be agreed upon in the case of non-compliance with the SLA (but see ‘internal’ customers below). It is important to note that the ‘agreement’ relates to the services the customer receives, and not how the service provider delivers that service. SLAs commonly include segments to address: a definition of services, performance measurement, problem management, customer duties, warranties, disaster recovery and termination of the agreement.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Session Events

Events indicating the beginning and ending of a user interaction with a computing resource.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Session ID

A value maintained by the IH and the AH to differentiate among different TCP connections for a specific remote service, is the least significant 32 bits of the Mux ID.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


SessionBased

A remote desktop presentation of any device where the presentation is controlled from a remote endpoint.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Shared Responsibility

The customer security team maintains some responsibilities for security as you move applications, data, containers, and workloads to the cloud. At the same time, the provider takes some responsibility, but not all. Defining the line between customer responsibilities and providers is imperative for reducing the risk of introducing vulnerabilities into your public, hybrid, and multi-cloud environments.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/blog/2020/08/26/shared-responsibility-model-explained/


Shor’s algorithm

This refers to the P.W. Shor algorithm [Shor], published in 1994, which allows integers to be factored and to find discrete logarithms in polynomial-time on a quantum computer. By using Shor’s algorithm, most of today’s commonly used asymmetric cryptosystems can be broken. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


Signature Services

A software program or function to provide an electronic coded message which is unique to both the document and the signer and binds both of them together. The digital signature ensures the authenticity of the signer. After it is signed, any changes made to the document invalidate the signature, thereby protecting against signature forgery and information tampering.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Single Packet Authorization (SPA)

A single packet protocol for service protection behind a defaultdrop packet filter that offers 1) asymmetric ciphers for encryption, 2) authentication with a keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) in the encrypt-then-authenticate model, 3) non-replayable packets that cannot be broken by trivial sequence busting attacks. Within SDP, SPA plays a key role by hiding servers (including the SDP controller and gateway) until and unless the initiating host sends a valid SPA packet as the initial connection request.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Single Packet Authorization OTP

Based on RFC 4226 (a document describing an algorithm to generate one-time password values, based on hashed message authentication code (HMAC)) but modified to include a counter value which ensures a different password each time. It is used to uniquely identify the IH when initiating communication to both the SDP controller and the AH.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/sdp/SDP_Specification_1.0.pdf


Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)

The SRP defines a responsibility of class as a reason to change, and that a class should have only one reason to change.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/best-practices-in-implementing-a-secure-microservices-architecture/

Best Practices in Implementing a Secure Microservices Architecture : CSA


Single Sign On

Access control feature where a user logs in once and gains access to many other systems without being prompted to log in again at each of them. One implementation of SSO is Kerberos.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Smart Appliances

Devices whose primary purpose is not computation, but include connectivity to a network to provide real-time updates on their status or to be controlled remotely.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Smart Card

A smart card (aka microprocessor card, chip card, or integrated circuit card) has traditionally taken a pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. Smart cards are often used in two-factor authentication solutions where the user enters a pin which is used by an operating system on the smart card to release evidence of identity such as a digital certificate or to allow a private key to sign an identity token which is sent to an enforcement agent that determines if the identity is valid.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Smartcard Virtualization

Methods and systems that allow users to virtualize a local smart card so that they can remotely connect to a server and interact with the server as if the local smart card was physically connected to the server.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Social Media

A presentation modality links users together to exchange messages, photos, etc. to network and communicate one-on-one or in groups.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Software

A collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. Physical hardware, from which the system is built, performs the work.

Sources

Cambridge Dictionary. (2021, August 11). Software. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/ english/software.


Software Architecture

The structure or structures of the system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements, and the relationships among them.

Sources

Bass, L., Clements, P. C., & Kazman, R. (2012, September). Software Architecture in Practice, Third Edition. https://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=30264.


Software Composition Analysis (SCA)

Security testing that analyzes application source code or compiled code for software components with known vulnerabilities.

Note 1 to entry: software components in software composition analysis may include open source, libraries and common code.
Note 2 to entry: known vulnerabilities may be discovered via vulnerability databases such as CVE.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Software Delivery Pipeline

Set of automated processes used for delivering software from conception to deployment.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Software Design Pattern

A general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. It is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into source or machine code. Rather, it is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations.

Sources

Wikipedia contributors. (2021a, June 14). Software design pattern. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Software_design_pattern


Software Management

The application of management activities-planning, coordinating, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting-to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic, disciplined, and quantified. This includes measurement at distinct points in time for the purpose of systematically controlling changes to the configuration and maintaining the integrity and traceability of the configuration throughout the system life cycle.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Software Quality Assurance

Software Quality Assurance is the process of testing software and tracking the defects found. Applications should be tested for security vulnerabilities as part of the software quality assurance process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Software Token

Are applications that run on a phone or computer that generate one time passwords for human entry or need to be plugged into a reader. Software tokens could be compromised if the user’s device is compromised, and this risk needs to be considered in any threat model.

SDP systems can rely on software tokens as a form of MFA, just as they can rely on a hardware token for MFA. SDPs may use cryptographically secured tokens to transmit information (such as application authorizations) between its components.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Software as a Service (SaaS)

Is a full application that is managed and hosted by the provider. Consumers access it with a web browser, mobile app, or a lightweight client app.

Sources

Disaster Recovery as a Service : CSA


Software-Defined Network (SDN)

An approach to computer networking that allows network administrators to manage network services through abstractions of higher-level functionality. SDNs manage the networking infrastructure. This is done by decoupling the system that makes decisions about where traffic is sent (the control plane) from the underlying systems that forward traffic to the selected destination (the data plane).

SDPs secure all connections to the services running on the networking infrastructure. So, while SDN is the notion of establishing a dynamic networking infrastructure… getting users to connect point to point, fast and efficiently, with as much throughput as possible, SDP is about the ability to secure every connection at all layers of this dynamic network infrastructure.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6819788

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Software-Defined Perimeter (SDP)

A network security architecture that is implemented to provide security at Layers 1-7 of the OSI network stack. An SDP implementation hides assets and uses a single packet to establish trust via a separate control and data plane prior to allowing connections to hidden assets.

A secure perimeter that is created based on policies to isolate services from unsecured networks. It’s designed to provide an on-demand, dynamically provisioned air-gapped network, by first authenticating users and devices prior to authorizing the user/device combination to securely connect to the isolated services. Unauthorized users and devices are unable to connect to the protected resources. SDPs make extensive use of encryption, including mutual TLS for inter-component communications, and an HMAC within the single-packet authorization packet.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/software-defined-perimeter-and-zero-trust/

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Software-Defined Wide Area Network (SD WAN)

Provides a replacement for traditional WAN routers and are agnostic to WAN transport technologies. SD-WAN provides dynamic, policy-based, application path selection across multiple WAN connections and supports service chaining for additional services such as WAN optimization and firewalls.

While SD-WANs manage the infrastructure for IP networking, SDPs secure connections that use the infrastructure provided by SD-WANs.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/software-defined-wan-sd-wan

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Solution

A solution is the application of architecture, patterns, and design effort to solve a specific industry need or business problem. A solution intends to provide ongoing customer and business owner value.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Source Code Management

A form of version control for source code that allows for versioning of software, branching software into different releases, and controlling access to software.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Source Code Scanning

The method of identifying security bugs in software with static code analysis tools.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Speech Recognition (IVR)

Speech recognition can translate the spoken word into computer input. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems provide a menu of choices that a person can respond to to interact with a system.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Spoofing

Impersonating, masquerading or otherwise falsely assuming an identity, characteristic or claim about oneself. In cloud testing, spoofing often takes the form of stealing cloud environment credentials to leverage their identity’s privileges.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Standards & Guidelines

This capability is a complement for the Architecture Governance, outlines all the technology standards, and guidelines regarding how they can be consumed across the organization. These standards should include alignment with the organization’s strategy, industry standards, principles, patterns that can be reused across the organization, among other elements necessary to ensure consistent implementation and adoption.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Static Application Security Testing (SAST)

Security testing that analyzes application source code for software vulnerabilities and gaps against best practices.
Note 1 to entry: Static analysis can be performed in multiple environments including the developer’s IDE, source code, and binaries.
Note 2 to entry: Also called “white box testing” 

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Storage

A function that records data and supports retrieval (SNIA Dictionary).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Storage Services

Concerned with the provisioning, migration and sanitization of physical storage in the infrastructure. Controls at this level assure that storage is available when required, its redundancy/reliability requirements match the service requirements, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Storage Virtualization

Concerned with how virtualized storage is created, allocated and managed. This includes both ‘block-based’ storage such as a SAN (Storage Area Network) and ‘file-based’ virtualization such as NAS (Network Attached Storage) whether provided by a file server or appliance. Controls at this level assure that the storage is adequate to requirements, properly segregated and secured and that its performance matches the profile specified in the service level agreement.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


StorageDevice Based

Storage device controllers may allow virtualization of disk volumes (e.g., a hardware RAID controller that groups multiple physical volumes or sections of columns into a single host-visible RAID-5 array).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Strangle

A “Strangler” is a reference model that is used to describe the process of modernizing a monolithic application into a microservices architecture, by adding new microservices to the application over time, while decommissioning certain features of the monolith over time. It is a dissect and transition as you develop on the go model.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Strategy

The strategy information within ITOS represents the business and technology trends affecting the enterprise, gap analysis of current capabilities against desired capabilities, and the investments required to fill the gaps.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Strategy Alignment

Process-oriented to understand the business needs and strategy and ensure that Information Technology and the Security and Risk Management strategies are aligned to support those objectives within the roadmap.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Stress & Volume Testing

Performance and capacity tests seek to determine the workload level at which a service level objective is violated or the maximum workload that can be supported without violating a service level objective, respectively.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Application Services


Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection

These attacks, which are still quite common on the Internet, look for web sites that pass insufficiently processed user input to database back-ends and then send carefully-crafted input that will cause exposure of database records, and possibly allow destruction of databases.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/IR/nistir7682.pdf


Switched

A more complex storage area network architecture that includes a switching network to connect hosts with LUNs. Switched SANs may either be based on fibre channel or fibre channel over Ethernet (FCoE) or iSCSI.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Symmetric Encryption

A single shared secret held by one or more authorized parties for encrypting and decrypting data and communications.

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/symmetric-encryption


Symmetric Keys

Also referred to as a symmetric cryptographic cipher, both parties must use the same key for encryption and decryption. The encryption keys must be shared between the parties before any decryption of the message can take place.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Syndrome decoding

This is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hardness (NP-hard) problem that occurs in code-based cryptography. The goal is to find a constrained solution of a linear system; that solution must have a small number of nonzero components. 

Sources

Quantum Safe Security Glossary : CSA


System for Cross-Domain Identity Management (SCIM)

System for Cross-domain Identity Management (SCIM) is a standard for exchanging identity information between domains. It can be used for provisioning and deprovisioning accounts in external systems and for exchanging attribute information.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/security-guidance/security-guidance-v4-FINAL.pdf?_ga=2.225992666.1359049959.1661450515-2107700575.1655484199

Letter T

TCP / IP Ports

In computer science, ports are of two types - physical ports (which is a physical docking point where other devices connect) and logical ports (which is a well-programmed docking point through which data flows over the internet). Security and its consequences lie in a logical port.

SDP communications between Client, Controller, and Gateway use the TCP / IP ports.

Sources

https://www.w3schools.in/cyber-security/ports-and-its-security/#:~:text=Cyber%20Security%20Tutorials&text=In%20computer%20science%2C%20ports%20are,lie%20in%20a%20logical%20port.

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


TPM Virtualization

A Trusted Platform Module can store code signatures or keys that the software trusts to be unalterable by an attacker. This capability refers to a virtualized TPM instance. TPM is defined by Trusted Computing Group.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


TVM (Threat Vulnerability Management)

Information regarding threats, vulnerability management testing, penetration testing, and compliance testing.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Tampering

Sabotage, modification or forgery of records, process or product in a harmful way, or otherwise in a fashion that serves an attacker’s other objective or attack chain. In cloud testing tampering often takes the form of altering cloud logs, changing hosted images, and tampering with API, repositories or data.

Sources

Cloud Penetration Testing : CSA


Technical Assessment

Ensure that the technical risks identified, documented, and appropriate treatments are identified.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Technical Awareness & Training

To increase the ability to select and implement effective technical security mechanisms, products, process and tools.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Technical Debt

A design or construction approach that’s expedient in the short term but that creates a technical context in which the same work will cost more to do later than it would cost to do now (including increased cost over time).

Sources

McConnell, S. (2013). “Managing Technical Debt (slides),” in Workshop on Managing Technical Debt (part of ICSE 2013): IEEE, 2013.


Technical Security Standards

Stipulate how specific technical security controls must be implemented (for example, a security policy might mandate at-rest encryption for a particular class of data and a technical security standard might specify that the encryption implementation must be FIPS 140-2 certified AES-256).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Technology Solution Services (TSS)

IT solutions can be thought of as a technology stack: at the top level are the actual interactions that the users have with the stack, with applications that accept the interactions and push data down where it may be manipulated, followed by the data that runs on them, with the computers and networks at the bottom layer. The four technology solution domains (Presentation Services, Application Services, Information Services, and Infrastructure Services) are based on the standard multi-tier architecture used to build these solutions.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Telehealth

Telehealth encompasses clinical health care as well as a wide range of other services. Telehealth uses innovative technologies, such as kiosks, website monitoring applications, mobile phone applications, wearable devices, and videoconferencing, to remotely connect health care providers to patients.

Sources

Marcoux Rita M., and Vogenberg F. Randy, 2016. _Telehealth: Applications from a Legal and Regulatory Perspective, Pharmacy and Therapeutics _Vol 41 (9): P. 567–570. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010268/


Test Management

The function that manages the overall process of periodic testing and subsequent review of the DRP.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Testing

The process of testing all changes associated with a release to ensure they meet the requirements and will not disrupt existing services. This is a Quality Assurance function coordinated through Release Management.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Third Party Audits

Ensures that the services you rely upon are consistent with your security requirements.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


Third-Party Security Service Provider (TSSP)

 A common, alternative term for TPSSP is managed security service provider (MSSP). Gartner states that an MSSP provides outsourced monitoring and management of security devices and systems to cloud customers. Typical services include managed firewalls, intrusion detection, virtual private networks, vulnerability scanning, and antivirus services. The MSSPs use high availability security operation centers (either from their facilities or other data center providers) to provide 24/7 services that reduce the number of operational security personnel an enterprise needs to hire, train and retain to maintain an appropriate security maturity.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/mssp-managed-security-service-provider
https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-61r2.pdf


ThirdParty

Third-party devices are owned by one business and provided for use by another business.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain


Threat

A threat is any circumstance or event with the potential to cause harm to an information system in the form of destruction, disclosure, adverse modification of data, and/or denial of service.

Sources

NIST SP 800-32 under Threat NSTISSI 4009


Threat & Vulnerability Management

This discipline deals with core security, such as vulnerability management, threat management, compliance testing, and penetration testing. Vulnerability management is a complex endeavor in which enterprises track their assets, monitor, scan for known/emerging vulnerabilities, and take action by patching the software, changing configurations, or deploying other controls to reduce the attack surface at the resource layer. Threat modeling and security testing are also part of activities to identify the vulnerabilities effectively. This discipline aims to proactively inspect the infrastructure that runs the cloud to address new security threats using vulnerability scanning, virtual patching, and other aspects of security testing and response.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Threat Management

Threat Management focuses on threats, threat sources, and threat agents that can compromise confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data. Threat management can leverage a threat taxonomy to provide structure. Threat management also contributes to the overall risk assessment process.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Threat Modeling

Methodology to identify and understand threats impacting a resource or set of resources.

Note to entry: Common methodologies of threat modeling include STRIDE (Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, Elevation of Privilege) and OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation).

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Threats

A threat is any circumstance or event with the potential to adversely impact organizational operations, assets, individuals, or other organizations through a system via unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of information, and/or denial of service. 

Sources

Information Technology Governance, Risk and Compliance in Healthcare : CSA


Ticketing

The process of creating a record of incidents that can be tracked through their lifecycle. These incidents should be referenced by a unique identifier.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Transform

Transformation of data implies extracting data from a source, transforming it or converting it to one format or another, and loading it into a target system.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Transformation Services

Translation and normalization services for the security monitoring events in order to do data mining and event correlation.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Translate

An adapter microservice wraps and translates (usually function based) services into an entity-based REST interface. This allows an interface of an existing class to be used as another interface.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

A transport protocol that is used on top of IP to ensure reliable transmission of packets. TCP includes mechanisms to solve many of the problems that arise from packet-based messaging, such as lost packets, out of order packets, duplicate packets, and corrupted packets. Since TCP is the protocol used most commonly on top of IP, the Internet protocol stack is sometimes referred to as TCP/IP.

SDP communications between client, controller, and gateway use the TCP protocol.

Sources

https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computers-and-internet/xcae6f4a7ff015e7d:the-internet/xcae6f4a7ff015e7d:transporting-packets/a/transmission-control-protocol--tcp

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

A set of protocols covering (approximately) the network and transport layers of the seven-layer OSI network model.

Sources

https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/tcpip-transmission-control-protocolinternet-protocol


Transport Layer Security (TLS)

A cryptographic protocol, successor to SSL, that provides security for communications over a computer or IP network.

SDPs utilize a mutual TLS (mTLS) connection between pairs of components, in which both components validate the authenticity of the other component while establishing a secure connection.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/transport_layer_security

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Trend Analysis

Analysis of requests for help regarding security in terms of consulting on projects, questions asked about policies, end-user training feedback, etc. to identify frequently asked questions and new areas of documentation required for the knowledge base.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Trust Assessment

Remote posture checking of an user’s device to verify if endpoint protection is operating and if any blacklisted processes are running. Additionally trust assessment can also verify if a device is patched and the hash values of software to detect tampering. Typically trust assessment is implemented over the SDP control channel before access to authorized applications is granted.

Sources

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Trusted Platform Module (TPM)

A cryptographic microprocessor designed to secure hardware by integrating cryptographic keys and services. A TPM functions as a root of trust for storage, measurement, and reporting. TPMs are currently included in many computing devices.

Sources

https://circle.cloudsecurityalliance.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=a8c459b5-b927-4193-89e3-bf7bd1cc28c2&_ga=2.68892241.1579405153.1655930705-2107700575.1655484199

Letter U

Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV)

This is a multivariate signature scheme which was proposed in 1999 by A. Kipnis, L. Goubin and J. Patarin [KPG99]. 

Sources

[KPG99] A. Kipnis, J. Patarin, and L. Goubin. Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Signature Schemes. EUROCRYPT’99, LNCS 1592, pages 206–222. Springer, 1999.


Unified Threat Management (UTM)

A typical unified threat management (UTM) system has a firewall, malware detection and eradication, sensing and blocking of suspicious network probes, and so on. Deploying a UTM reduces complexity by making a single system responsible for multiple security objectives, but it also requires that the UTM have all the desired features to meet every one of the objectives.

Sources

https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-41r1.pdf


Universal 2nd Factor (U2F)

This protocol allows online services to augment the security of their existing password infrastructure by adding a strong second factor to user login. The user logs in with a username and password as before. The service can also prompt the user to present a second factor device at any time it chooses. The strong second factor allows the service to simplify its passwords (e.g. 4-digit PIN) without compromising security. During registration and authentication, the user presents the second factor by simply pressing a button on a USB device or tapping over NFC. The user can use their U2F device across all online services that support the protocol leveraging built-in support in web browsers.

SDPs also leverage U2F or UAF for user or device authentication without additional CA requirements, separate from the CA utilized for mutual TLS.

Sources

https://fidoalliance.org/specs/u2f-specs-master/fido-u2f-overview.html

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Universal Authentication Framework (UAF)

This protocol allows online services to offer password-less and multifactor security. The user registers their device to the online service by selecting a local authentication mechanism such as swiping a finger, looking at the camera, speaking into the mic, entering a PIN, etc. The UAF protocol allows the service to select which mechanisms are presented to the user. Once registered, the user simply repeats the local authentication action whenever they need to authenticate to the service. The user no longer needs to enter their password when authenticating from that device. UAF also allows experiences that combine multiple authentication mechanisms such as fingerprint + PIN.

SDPs can leverage U2F or UAF for user or device authentication without additional CA requirements, separate from the CA utilized for mutual TLS.

Sources

https://fidoalliance.org/specs/fido-uaf-v1.1-id-20170202/fido-uaf-overview-v1.1-id-20170202.html

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Universal Naming Convention (UNC)

Provided by Windows as an early method of identifying systems within an enterprise environment.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


Unknown Threat Actor

Unauthorized access was confirmed, but the identity of the attacker, nor any information on the attacker was not made available. It is doubtful whether much is known at all.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA


User Behavior & Profile Patterns

Collection of events and information about users that profiles and identifies normal and abnormal behavior patterns such as application usage by specific users or roles.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Business Operation Support Services (BOSS) Domain


User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

A lightweight data transport protocol that works on top of IP. UDP provides a mechanism to detect corrupt data in packets, but it does not attempt to solve other problems that arise with packets, such as lost or out of order packets. That’s why UDP is sometimes known as the Unreliable Data Protocol. UDP is simple but fast, at least in comparison to other protocols that work over IP. It’s often used for time-sensitive applications (such as real-time video streaming) where speed is more important than accuracy.

SPA packets used to initiate connections could use UDP to ensure the SDP will not respond to any connections from any clients until they have provided an authentic SPA.

Sources

https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computers-and-internet/xcae6f4a7ff015e7d:the-internet/xcae6f4a7ff015e7d:transporting-packets/a/user-datagram-protocol-udp

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


User Directory Services

User directory service is the system that stores, organizes, and provides access to information about users in a directory. The directory allows the lookup of values given a user ID where the ID may be associated with multiple, different types of data.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


User Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA)

UEBA is a type of cybersecurity process that uses machine learning, algorithms, and statistical analyses to detect real-time network attacks.

Sources

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8855782


User Threat Management (UTM)

Security appliances unify and integrate multiple security features onto a single hardware platform, including network firewall capabilities, network intrusion detection and prevention, and gateway anti-virus. Some UTM offerings go further, incorporating an anti-spam and URL filtering capability on a hardened operating system as well.

The disadvantage of these appliances is that they can represent a single point of failure. To counter this vulnerability UTM’s can be combined with SDP’s to catch anything that gets through or around the UTM.

Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/unified-threat-management

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Utility

Sidecar mesh abstracts the underlying infrastructure through a proxy of services below the application. The proxy handles traffic flow, inter-microservice communication, connection, management, load balancing, availability and telemetry data. The sidecar mesh paradigm provides orchestration and architectural independence from underlying cloud architectures, across multiple clouds.

Sources

Microservices Architecture Pattern : CSA

Letter V

VMBased (VDI)

A virtual desktop integrated with a presentation server to control access and manage multiple users.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


VRA

Documentation regarding risk assessments of 3rd party vendors used by the organization.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Vendor Management

This capability governs the process of managing vendor relationships, including selection, vetting, evaluation, security, and compliance. Usually, these processes also include risk evaluation and a rating against the type of data that the vendor can access, process, host or see (given their maturity on their risk profile, financial, among other areas), and type of connectivity

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Version Control

The process of tracking all changes to source code, configuration items, and documentation and assigning these changes a version identifier.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Information Technology Operation & Support (ITOS) Domain


Vertical Isolation

Vertical isolation separates all virtualized components of the workspace, such as usage details, communication, memory or data, may not be leaked between workspaces.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A virtual network built on top of existing physical networks that can provide a secure communications mechanism for data and IP information transmitted between networks or between different nodes on the same network.

SDPs provide the benefits of a VPN (message confidentiality and integrity) while overcoming the limitations of traditional VPN products like fine-grained access control.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/virtual_private_network

https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/assets/research/sdp/SDP-glossary.pdf


Virtual Directory Services

Virtual Directory Services aggregate multiple directories into a consolidated view which looks to the consumer application as a single directory.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


Virtual Infrastructure

The virtual infrastructure inherits some of the same services as are present in the physical infrastructure. For example, software images must be securely built and managed for the virtual servers that are hosted on the virtualization platform provided on the physical server. However, there are also unique requirements for the virtualized infrastructure itself.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)

A broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated within a network at the data link layer. A single physical local area network (LAN) can be logically partitioned into multiple, independent VLANs; a group of devices on one or more physical LANs can be configured to communicate within the same VLAN, as if they were attached to the same physical LAN.

Sources

https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/virtual_local_area_network_vlan


Virtual Machines (HostBased)

A physical host may virtualize various of its components and capabilities to provide the illusion of multiple machines, applications, etc.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Virtual Memory

An operating system feature that uses a combination of physical memory and backing storage (usually disk) to create the illusion that much larger memory space is available. For good performance, it relies on the principle of locality that assumes that only a small part of a program’s address space (the working set) is actually in use at any point in time.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Virtual Workspaces

The template of the virtualized infrastructure defined by the cloud provider which defines characteristics of the virtual infrastructure instances such as number of hosts, network segmentation, storage and security elements. For High-Availability workspaces can be replicated across instances or cloud providers to provide redundant capabilities for failover purposes.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Infrastructure Services


Vulnerability

A vulnerability is a weakness in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation exploitable by a threat source.

Examples of different vulnerabilities include:

  1. Physical: unlocked rooms containing switches
  2. Environmental: flooding
  3. External relationships: telecommunications outage
Sources

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2012). Special Publication 800-30 Revision 1 Guide for Conducting Risk Assessments, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. Retrieved from https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf


Vulnerability Management

The cyclical practice of identifying, classifying, remediating, and mitigating vulnerabilities (generally in software).

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Vulnerability Scanning

Scans the target infrastructure or systems for security vulnerabilities via a public network.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA

Letter W

WSSecurity

A flexible and feature-rich extension to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) to apply security to web services. The protocol specifies how integrity and confidentiality can be enforced on messages and allows the communication of various token formats such as SAML, Kerberos, and X.509.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Web Authentication (WebAuth)

A core component of FIDO Alliance’s FIDO2 set of specifications, is a web-based API that allows websites to update their login pages to add FIDO-based authentication on supported browsers and platforms. FIDO2 enables users to leverage common devices to easily authenticate to online services in both mobile and desktop environments.

Sources

https://fidoalliance.org/fido2/fido2-web-authentication-webauthn/


Web Application Firewall (WAF)

Application firewall that monitors, alerts, and blocks attacks by inspecting HTTP traffic.

Sources

The Six Pillars of DevSecOps: Automation : CSA


Web Security

Offers real-time protection of public facing application services generally offered by proxying web traffic through the cloud service provider.

Sources

Defined Categories of Service 2011 : CSA


White Listing

A list or register of entities that, for one reason or another, are being provided a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition.

When a whitelist is used, the default is to “deny all” except for those entries that are enumerated in the filter. These are typically used when it is easier (or a shorter list) to identify what is desirable rather than what is not desirable.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


Wireless Protection

Protection of data in transit over wireless media, including 802.11 Wi-Fi, cellular, and Bluetooth. Some forms of encryption are the typical protection approach, e.g., Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) leveraging TKIP or AES.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain

Letter X

X.500 Repositories

X.500 Repositories store hierarchical organization of entries according to the X.500 series of computer networking standards for electronic directory services.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Technology Solution Services (TSS) Domain - Information Services


XACML

eXtensible Access Control Markup Language is a declarative access control policy language implemented in XML.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain


XML Appliance

A special-purpose network device used to secure, manage and mediate XML traffic. They are most popularly implemented in Service-Oriented Architectures to control XML based Web Services traffic, and increasingly in cloud-oriented computing to help enterprises integrate on-premise applications with off-premise cloud-hosted applications. XML Appliances are also commonly referred to as SOA Appliances, SOA Gateways, XML Gateways, Cloud Brokers.

Sources

Enterprise Architecture Reference Guide v2 : CSA: Security and Risk Management (SRM) Domain

Letter Z

Zero Trust (ZT)

The ZT model “eliminates the idea of a trusted network” and teaches that “in Zero Trust (ZT), all network traffic is untrusted. Thus, security professionals must verify and secure all resources, limit and strictly enforce access control, and inspect and log all network traffic.”

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/artifacts/towards-a-zero-trust-architecture/

https://media.paloaltonetworks.com/documents/Forrester-No-More-Chewy-Centers.pdf


Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA)

1) A Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) enables secure authorized access to each individual resource, whether located on-premises or in the cloud, for a hybrid workforce and partners based on an organization’s defined access policy.

2) A Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) uses Zero Trust principles to plan industrial and enterprise infrastructure and workflows.

Sources

1) https://circle.cloudsecurityalliance.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=a7c73ffe-be02-48e1-a439-3510b06a0bce&forceDialog=0&_ga=2.260269199.38415640.1663010462-1480344219.1663010462

2) https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-207.pdf


Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

ZTNA is a secure access tool that allows users to connect safely to workloads inside an enterprise network.

Sources

https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/blog/2022/03/01/how-zero-trust-security-will-revolutionize-devsecops/


Zoombombing

The practice of hijacking video conversations by uninvited parties to disrupt the usual proceedings.

Sources

Top Threats to Cloud Computing: Egregious Eleven Deep Dive : CSA